Galanin pp 419-427 | Cite as

Senile dementia of the Alzheimer type is accompanied by hypertrophy of galanin axons, reservation of receptors and tissue specific expression of the galanin gene in the nucleus basalis Meynert

  • V. Chan-Palay
  • C. Kohler
  • P. Ernfors
  • H. Persson
Chapter
Part of the Wenner-Gren Center International Symposium Series book series

Abstract

The cholinergic neurons of the basal nucleus of Meynert (bnM) (Meynert, 1872) is a major source of cholinergic input to the cerebral cortex in animals and in man. It is now well established that cholinergic cells in the bnM undergo varying degrees of degenerative change with neuron loss in neurodegenerative diseases, such as senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) (Davies and Maloney, 1976; Whitehouse et al., 1982; Wilcock et al., 1982; Bowen et al., 1983) and in Parkinson’s disease (Gaspar et al., 1984; Perry et al., 1985; Chan-Palay, 1988 a,b). Although it is clear that there are multiple factors affecting neurotransmitters in the Alzheimer brain, there is evidence that reduced cholinergic neurotransmission is related to the cognitive dysfunctions, including deficits in learning and memory (Mastropaolo et al., 1988). This association is certainly not a simple one but probably involves multiple chemical systems interacting with acetylcholine, such as galanin (Chan-Palay et al., 1990) or nerve groeth factor (Ernfors et al. 1990).

Keywords

Depression Ischemia Amidated Dementia Glycine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bonnefond, C., Mengod, G., Probst, A., Palacios, J.M. (1990). Distribution of galanin mRNA containing cells and galanin receptor binding sites in human and rat hypothalamus. Eur. J. Neurosci., (in press).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bowen, D.M.; Benton, J.S.; Spillane, J.A.; Smith, C.C.T.; Allen, S.J. (1983). Choline acetyltransferase activity and histopathology of frontal neocortex biopsies of demented patients. J. Neurol. Sci., 57, 181–202.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chan-Palay, V. (a). (1988a). Neurons with galanin innervate cholinergic cells in the human basal forebrain and galanin and acetylcholine coexist. Brain Res. Bull., 21, 465–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chan-Palay, V.b. (1988b). Galanin hyperinnervates surviving neurons of the human basal nucleus of Meynert in dementias of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease: A hypothesis for the role of galanin in accentuating cholinergic dysfunction in dementia. J. Comp. Neurol., 273, 543–557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chan-Palay, V.; Ernfors, P.; Perssoh, H.(1990). Senile dementia of the Alzheimer type is accompanied by an increase in tissue specific expression of galanin gene in the nucleus basalis Meynert. Dementia, 1, (in press)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Davies, P.; Maloney, A.J.P. (1976). Selective loss of central cholinergic neurons in Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet, ii, 1403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ernfors, P.; Lindefors, N.; Chan-Palay, V.; Persson, H. (1990). Cholinergic neurons of nucleus basalis express elevated levels of nerve growth factor mRNA in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, (in press).,Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gaspar, P.; Gray, F. (1984). Dementia in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. A neuropathological study of 32 cases. Acta Neuropathol. (Berl), 64, 43–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kaplan, L.M.; Spindel, E.R.; Isselbacher, K. J.; Chin, W.W. (1988). Tissue specific expression of the rat galanin gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 85, 1065–1069PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Köhler, C.; Chan-Palay, V. (1990). Preservation of Galanin receptors in the human basal nucleus of Meynert in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Dementia, 1, (In press)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mastropaolo, J.; Nadi, N.S.; Ostrowski, N.L.; Crawley, J.N. (1988). Galanin antagonizes acetylcholin on a memory task in basal forebrain-lesioned rats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 85, 9841–9845PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Melander, T.; Hokfelt, T.; Rökaeus, Å. (1986). Distribution of galanin-like immunoreaktivity in the rat central nervous system. J. Comp. Neurol., 248, 475–517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mesulam, M.M.; Geula, C. (1988). Nucleus basalis (Ch4) and cortical cholinergic innervation in the human brain: Observations based on the distribution of acetylcholinesterase and cholin acetyltransferase. J. Comp. Neurol., 275, 216–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Meynert, T. (1872). In Putnam JJ (Transl), A Manual of Histology, William Wood, New York, 650–766Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Perry, E.K.; Curtis, M.; Dick, D.J.; Candy, J. M.; Atack, J.R.; Bloxham, C.A.; Blessed, G.; Fairbairn, A.F.; Tomlinson, B.E.; Perry, R.H. (1985). Cholinergic correlates of cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease: Comparison with Alzheimer’s disease. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 48, 413–421.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rökaeus, Å.; Brownstein, M.J. (1986). Construction of a porcine adrenal medullary cDNA library and nucleotide sequence analysis of two clones encoding a galanin receptor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 83, 6287–6291.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Skofitsch, G.; Jacobowitz, D.M. (1985). Immunohistochemical mapping of galanin-like neurons in the rat central nervous system. Peptides (Fayetteville), 6, 509–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tatemoto, K.; Rökaeus, Å.; Jornvall, H.; McDonald, T.J.; Mutt, V. (1983). Galanin — A novel biologically active peptide from porcine intestine. FEBS Lett., 164, 124–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Whitehouse, P.J.; Price, D.I.; Struble, R. G.; Clark, A.W.; Coyle, J.T.; DeLong, M.R. (1982). Alzheimer’s disease and senile dementia: Loss of neurons in the basal forebrain. Science, 215, 12 37–1239.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wilcock, G.K.; Esiri, M.M.; Bowen, D.M.; Smith, C.C.T. (1982). Alzheimer’s disease: Correlation of cortical choline acetyltransferase activity with the severity of dementia and histological abnormalities. Neurol. Sci., 57, 407–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Wenner-Gren Center 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Chan-Palay
  • C. Kohler
  • P. Ernfors
  • H. Persson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations