Peru, the largest in area of the Andean countries, was the cradle of the most advanced indigenous civilizations and most powerful empire in pre-Columbian South America—that of the Incas. Peru was also the focus of Spanish colonial domination for its first two hundred years of rule. What has remained of pre-Columbian America with regard to people, culture, and settlement is perhaps better represented in Peru than in any other country. The country has a 2,400-kilometer- (1,500-mile-) long coast on the Pacific Ocean and borders Colombia and Ecuador (with which it has boundary disputes) on the north, Brazil and Bolivia on the east, and Chile on the south. It is the only country that borders all the other Andean states.


Zinc Sugar Migration Corn Mercury 


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List of Sources

  1. Anuaro Estadistico del Peru. Lima, 1988.Google Scholar
  2. Area Handbook Series: Peru — A Country Study. The American University, Washington D.C., 1981.Google Scholar
  3. Thorpe, R. & Bertran, G. Peru — 1890–1977: Growth and Policy in an Open Economhy. London, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Times Books, Past Worlds, The Times Atlas of Archaeology. London, 1988.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Carta, The Israel Map and Publishing Company, Ltd. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Moshe Brawer

There are no affiliations available

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