L1, L2, L3: Continuity vs. Discontinuity in Lexical Acquisition

  • H. Wode
  • A. Rohde
  • F. Gassen
  • B. Weiss
  • M. Jekat
  • P. Jung

Abstract

The justification for a universal theory of language acquisition is the fact that the capacity of human beings for learning languages is not limited to one language, the mother tongue (L1). People can indeed learn more than one language. This can be achieved simultaneously, i.e. as the acquisition of several L1s, or nonsimultaneously, by learning additional languages subsequent to the L1. Furthermore, language can be learned without the benefit of foreign language instruction, as in naturalistic L2 acquisition, or within the classroom, as in tutored language acquisition. And, of course, human beings forget their languages and can re-learn them. Finally, one must not forget that even in certain pathological cases language acquisition is not impossible.

Keywords

Posit Dial Darges 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allendorf, S. (1980). Wiedererwerb einer Zweitsprache, dargestellt am Beispiel der englischen Negation. Doctoral dissertation: Kiel University.Google Scholar
  2. Bahns, J. (1981). Der natürliche L2-Erwerb der englischen modalen Hilfsverben. Doctoral dissertation: Kiel University.Google Scholar
  3. Bohn, O.-S. (1983). The L2 Acquisition of English Sentence Structure: The Early Stages. Doctoral dissertation: Kiel University.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, R. (1973). A First Language: The Early Stages. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burmeister, H. (1983). Semantisch-pragmatische Aspekte des natürlichen Zweitsprachenerwerbs: Eine Studie am Beispiel des Erwerbs des Englischen durch vier deutsche Kinder. Doctoral dissertation: Kiel University.Google Scholar
  6. Burmeister, P. (1986). Linguistische Untersuchung zum L2-Lexikonerwerb. Magister dissertation: Englisches Seminar, Kiel University.Google Scholar
  7. Clahsen, H. (1989). The comparative study of first and second language development. Unpublished ms.: Düsseldorf University.Google Scholar
  8. Clahsen, H. and Muysken, P. (1986). ‘The availability of universal grammar to adult and child learners: a study of the acquisition of German word-order’, Second Language Research, Vol. 2; No. 2, pp. 93–119. (Issue edited by J.N. Pankhurst and M.A. Sharwood-Smith.)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clark, E.V. (1973). ‘What’s in a word? On the child’s acquisition of semantics in his first language’, in Moore, T.E. (ed.), Cognitive Development and the Acquisition of Language. New York: Academic Press, pp. 65–110.Google Scholar
  10. Felix, S.W. (1978), Linguistische Untersuchungen zum natürlichen Zweitsprachenerwerb. Munich: Fink.Google Scholar
  11. Jakobson, R. (1941). Kindersprache, Aphasie und allgemeine Lautgesetze. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell.Google Scholar
  12. Kadar-Hoffmann, G. (1983). Trilingualer Spracherwerb: Der gleichzeitige Erwerb des Deutschen, Französischen und Ungarischen bei einem Kind, dargestellt am Beispiel der Negation. Doctoral dissertation: Kiel University.Google Scholar
  13. McCarthy, D. (1954). ‘Language development in children’, in Carmichael, L. (ed.), Manual of Child Psychology. New York: Wiley, pp. 492–630.Google Scholar
  14. McLaughlin, B. (1978). ‘The monitor model: some methodological considerations’, Language Learning, Vol. 28, pp. 309–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nelson, K. (1973). Structure and Strategy in Learning to Talk. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development No. 38. Chicago: Society for Research in Child Development.Google Scholar
  16. Ruke-Dravina, V. (1963). Zur Sprachentwicklung bei Kleinkindern, 1. Syntax: Beitrag auf der Grundlage lettischen Sprachmaterials. Slaviska och Baltiska Studier 6. Lund: Lund University.Google Scholar
  17. Smith, M.E. (1926). An Investigation of the Development of the Sentence and the Extent of Vocabulary in Young Children. University of Iowa Studies in Child Welfare No. 3. University of Iowa.Google Scholar
  18. Vihman, M.M. and Elbert, M. (in press). ‘Phonological development’, in Bemthal, J.E. and Bankson, N.W. (eds), Articulation Disorders. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  19. Vogel, T. (1987). Die Entwicklung der temporalen Referenz im Zweitsprachenerwerb. Doctoral dissertation: Kiel University.Google Scholar
  20. Wode, H. (1981). Learning a Second Language: An Integrated View of Language Acquisition. Tübingen: Narr.Google Scholar
  21. Wode, H. (1987). ‘Einige Grundzüge des natürlichen L2-Erwerbs des Wortschatzes’, in Melenk, H., Firges, J., Nold, G., Strauch, R. and Zeh, D. (eds), 11. Fremdsprachendidaktikerkongress. Tübingen: Narr, pp. 483–96.Google Scholar
  22. Wode, H. (1988). Einführung in die Psycholinguistik: Theorien, Methoden, Ergebnisse. Ismaning: Hueber.Google Scholar
  23. Wode, H. (1989). ‘Maturational changes of language acquisitional abilities’, in Gass, S., Madden, C., Preston, D. and Selinker, L. (eds), Variations in Second-language Acquisition, vol II: Psycholinguistic Issues. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters, pp. 176–86.Google Scholar
  24. Wode, H. (in press). ‘Categorical perception and segmental coding in the ontogeny of sound systems: a universal approach’, in Ferguson, C.F., Menn, L. and Stoel-Gammon, C. (eds), Child Phonological Development.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Wode
  • A. Rohde
  • F. Gassen
  • B. Weiss
  • M. Jekat
  • P. Jung

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations