Advertisement

Old Kerala

  • Robin Jeffrey
Part of the Cambridge Commonwealth Series book series (CAMCOM)

Abstract

Old Kerala was a place of boundaries and constraints — boundaries on where particular people might go; constraints on what they might do. People lived in discrete groups which connected with others in regulated, symbolic ways. In the seclusion of their great houses and palaces, a few high-status people, usually elderly males, made the major decisions about peace and war, land and trade, and sexual liaisons and religious ceremonies.

Keywords

Nineteenth Century Lower Caste Eleventh Century Princely State District Magistrate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    S. J. Shahani, ‘A Comparative Study of Traditional Political Organization of Kerala and Punjab’, Ph.D. thesis, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 1965, p. 91.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. P. Padmanabha Menon, History of Kerala, vol. I (Ernakulam: Cochin Government Press, 1924) pp. 416–17.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Luiz de Camoens, The Lusiads, trans. Leonard Bacon (New York: Hispanic Society of America, 1950), section VII, pp. 258–9.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    James Forbes, Oriental Memoirs, vol. I (London: Richard Bentley, 1834), p. 254.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Edgar Thurston, Castes and Tribes of Southern India, vol. II (New Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1975; first pubd 1909) p. 52.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ibid., p. 52.Google Scholar
  7. 9.
    R. Jeffrey, The Decline of Nayar Dominance (London: Sussex University Press, 1976) pp. 57–61, 230–3.Google Scholar
  8. 10.
    J. I. Minchin, Resident, to the Chief Secretary to the Madras Government, 31 January 1871, Madras Residency Records, Letters to the Madras Government, vol. XX (January 1870-December 1873) (NAI).Google Scholar
  9. 13.
    Emily Gilchrist Hatch, Travancore (Madras: Oxford University Press, 1933) pp. 221–2.Google Scholar
  10. 14.
    CofI. 1961, vol. VII, Kerala, part VIIB(i), Fairs and Festivals of Kerala, pp. 5, 9. A. Sreedhara Menon, Social and Cultural History of Kerala (New Delhi: Sterling, 1979) pp. 165–6. CofI, 1901, vol. XX, Cochin, part 1, Report, p. 59.Google Scholar
  11. 15.
    Jeffrey, Nayar Dominance, pp. 37–69. J. W. Gladstone, Protestant Christianity and People’s Movements in Kerala, 1850–1936 (Trivandrum: Seminary Publications, 1984) andGoogle Scholar
  12. Dick Kooiman, Conversion and Social Equality in India (New Delhi: Manohar, 1989).Google Scholar
  13. 18.
    T. Whitehouse, Some Historical Notices of Cochin on the Malabar Coast (Kottayam: CMS Press, 1859) p. 15.Google Scholar
  14. 19.
    Thomas Warden, Report on the Land Tenures in Malabar, dated the 12th September 1815 (Calicut: Collectorate Press, 1916) p. 11. Report of the Malabar Marriage Commission (Madras: Government Press, 1891), Appendix III, p. 11.Google Scholar
  15. 21.
    William Logan, Malabar, vol. I (Madras: Government Press, 1951; first pubd 1887) p. 129.Google Scholar
  16. 22.
    Ibid., p. 1.Google Scholar
  17. 23.
    Krishna Chaitanya, A History of Malayalam Literature (New Delhi: Orient Longman, 1971) p. 15.Google Scholar
  18. 24.
    A. Sreedhara Menon, Social and Cultural History of Kerala (New Delhi: Sterling, 1979) pp. 335–6.Google Scholar
  19. 25.
    Ibid., p. 331. Logan, Malabar, vol.1, pp. 92–5.Google Scholar
  20. 26.
    A. Sreedhara Menon, A Survey of Kerala History (Kottayam: National Book Stall, 1967) pp. 114–22.Google Scholar
  21. 31.
    Joan Mencher, ‘Growing Up in South Malabar’, Human Organization, vol. XXII (1963) pp. 58–9.Google Scholar
  22. 32.
    A. Aiyappan, The Personality of Kerala (Trivandrum: University of Kerala, 1982) pp. 214–20.Google Scholar
  23. 33.
    A. Aiyappan, ‘Fraternal Polyandry in Malabar’, Man in India, vol. XV (1935) pp. 111–12.Google Scholar
  24. 34.
    J. Puthenkalam, Marriage and the Family in Kerala (Calgary: Journal of Comparative Family Studies, University of Calgary, 1977) p. 199.Google Scholar
  25. 35.
    Augusta M. Blandford, The Land of the Conch Shell (London: Church of England Zenana Missionary Society, n.d. [c. 1901)) p. 39.Google Scholar
  26. 36.
    Nagam Aiya, Census, 1875, p. 142.Google Scholar
  27. T. Madhava Rao, Dewan, Memorandum, 1 November 1862, TGER, Section Books, Letters to the Resident, vol. LXV, p. 228.Google Scholar
  28. 37.
    Jeffrey, Nayar Dominance, p. 89. T. C. Varghese, Agrarian Change and Economic Consequences (Bombay: Allied, 1970) pp. 64–9.Google Scholar
  29. 39.
    Conrad Wood, ‘Historical Background of the Moplah Rebellion: Outbreaks, 1836–1919’, Social Scientist, no. 25 (August 1974) p. 23.Google Scholar
  30. Conrad Wood, The Moplah Rebellion and Its Genesis (New Delhi: People’s Publishing House, 1987). Dale, Islamic Society, pp. 119–52.Google Scholar
  31. K. N. Panikkar, Against Lord and State (New Delhi: OUP, 1989) pp. 65–85.Google Scholar
  32. 41.
    E. M. S. Namboodiripad, The National Question in Kerala (Bombay: People’s Publishing House, 1952) p. 121.Google Scholar
  33. 47.
    R. K. Shanmukham Chetty, Dewan, to the Secretary, Cochin Government, 18 July 1938, Dewan’s Letters, File IV (KSA, Ernakulam).Google Scholar
  34. 50.
    S. Subbarama Aiyar, ‘Watakancherry (Talapilli Taluk)’, in Gilbert Slater (ed.), Some South Indian Villages (Madras: Oxford University Press, 1918) p. 145.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Robin Jeffrey 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robin Jeffrey
    • 1
  1. 1.La Trobe UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations