Limits and Hopes: Political Action and Active Women

  • Robin Jeffrey
Part of the Cambridge Commonwealth Series book series (CAMCOM)


There is no Kerala model — neither in the sense of coherent policies that have produced specific results, nor a desirable goal that other parts of India or the world might wish to achieve. The remarkable social statistics that have intrigued scholars since the 1970s stem from the way in which public politics and the role of women took shape in the period between the 1920s and the 1950s amid the dissolution of old Kerala. The outcome in the 1990s is a society in which most people have skills (notably literacy) and some resources (perhaps a patch of ground) to prolong life and bandage the jagged edges of poverty. But hope and prospects lie elsewhere.


Central Government Employment Exchange Woman Athlete Chief Minister Christian Woman 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 3.
    Leela Gulati, Impacts of Male Migration to the Middle East on the Family (Trivandrum: CDS Working Paper no. 176, 1983) p. 3.Google Scholar
  2. Leela Gulati, Impact of the Development Process on the Indian Family (Trivandrum: CDS Working Paper no. 174, 1983, p. 20.Google Scholar
  3. 7.
    Leela Gulati, ‘Male Migration from Kerala: Some Effects on Women’, Manushi, no. 38 (January-February 1987) pp. 14–19.Google Scholar
  4. 8.
    V. Ramachandran, Industrialisation of Kerala: A Perspective, paper presented to the Seminar on Nation Building, Development Process and Communication with special reference to Kerala, Trichur, 7–9 April 1989, p. 6.Google Scholar
  5. 13.
    T. N. Krishnan, ‘Kerala Economy: Performance, Problems and Prospects’, in Malcolm S. Adiseshiah (ed.), The Economies of the States of the Indian Union (New Delhi: Lancer International, 1989) p. 415.Google Scholar
  6. 22.
    Susan Lewandowski, Migration and Ethnicity in Urban India: Kerala Migrants in the City of Madras, 1870–1970 (New Delhi: Manohar, 1980) pp. 184, 195–6.Google Scholar
  7. 23.
    Inward Remittances, p. 37. K. K. Subrahmanian and P. Mohanan Pillai, Kerala’s Industrial Backwardness: an Exploration of Alternative Hypotheses (Trivandrum: CDS Working Paper no. 210, 1985) p. 42.Google Scholar
  8. K. Ramachandran Nair, Industrial Relations in Kerala (New Delhi: Sterling, 1973) p. 90.Google Scholar
  9. 28.
    Ibid., p. 200. See also Manu Bhaskar, Press and Working Class Consciousness in Developing Societies (New Delhi: Gian Publishing House, 1989) p. 149.Google Scholar
  10. 34.
    K. G. Kumar, ‘Kerala’s Plea for Special Consideration’, EPW, 20 August 1988, p. 1731.Google Scholar
  11. 35.
    Ibib., p. 1730.Google Scholar
  12. 36.
    Ibib., p. 1731. See also IT, 15 December 1988, p. 30.Google Scholar
  13. 42.
    Ibid., p. 92. See also P. Mohanan Pillai, ‘Whither State Sector Enterprises in Kerala?’, EPW, Review of Management, 17–24 February 1990, pp. M9-M16.Google Scholar
  14. 44.
    C. J. George, ‘Industrial Backwardness of Kerala: the Myth and Realities’, cyclostyled paper, 1989, pp. 11–12. BI, 19 February-4 March 1990, pp. 121–2.Google Scholar
  15. 46.
    K. K. Subrahmanian and P. Mohanan Pillai, ‘Kerala’s Industrial Backwardness’, EPW, 5 April 1986, pp. 588–9.Google Scholar
  16. 58.
    Assembly Election Reportage, 1987, p. 9. HIE, 20 October 1984, p. 15. P. K. Michael Tharakan, ‘Behaviour of Communal Votes in Kerala Assembly Elections, 1987’, Religion and Society, vol. XXXV, no. 4 (December 1988) pp. 24–5.Google Scholar
  17. 61.
    P. M. Mathew and M. S. Nair, Women’s Organizations and Women’s Interests (New Delhi: Ashish, 1986) pp. 24–5, 46–7, 58, 117. There were 440 registered women’s societies and 89 cooperatives in the mid-1970s, according to Mathew and Nair.Google Scholar
  18. 62.
    Ibid., p. 30–62 in the mid- 1970sGoogle Scholar
  19. 82.
    Paul R. Ehrlich and Anne H. Ehrlich, The Population Explosion (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990) p. 235.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Robin Jeffrey 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robin Jeffrey
    • 1
  1. 1.La Trobe UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations