• Norman Solomon
Part of the Library of Philosophy and Religion book series (LPR)


I was at first tempted to place this chapter at the end of the book. Is not Messiah the culmination of history, a gift to writers of perorations?


World Religion Eternal Life Miraculous Event Evil Inclination Biblical Book 
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  1. 6.
    Though both Messiahs occur, it is not certain that any one author believes in both. See D. S. Russell, The Method and Message of Jewish Apocalyptic (London: SCM, 1964) pp. 312. 322. The rabbinic idea of a Messiah of the House of David and another of the House of Joseph (see B Sukkah 52a), clearly symbolising the reunification of Israel and Judah, is not found in pre-rabbinic sources.Google Scholar
  2. 7.
    M Sanhedrin 10:1. For an account of the systematic formulation of Jewish belief in later times see Menachem Kellner, Dogma in Mediaeval Jewish Thought (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989).Google Scholar
  3. 8.
    B Sanhedrin 99a. See Ephraim E. Urbach, Chazal (Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 1975) p. 609ff; tr. Israel Abrahams as The Sages (Cambridge, Mass., and London: Harvard University Press, 1987).Google Scholar
  4. 17.
    The ‘Creation’ reckoning in early rabbinic literature does not tally with that in use amongst Jews now. There is a two-year discrepancy between the systems, as shown by E. Frank, Talmudic and Rabbinic Chronology (New York: Feldheim, 1956). The correct equivalent for the date in Rabbi Joseph’s scroll is not 471 CE, as is sometimes claimed, but 473.Google Scholar
  5. 20.
    See Gershom Scholem, Sabbatai Sevi: The Mystical Messiah (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; and London: Kegan Paul, 1973).Google Scholar
  6. 28.
    L. Ginsberg, ‘Die Haggada bei den Kirchenvaetern’, in A. S. Freidus, Studies in Jewish Bibliography (New York: A. Kohut Memorial Foundation, 1929) p. 4ff, argues that the pre-existence of ‘names’ rather than of the Messiah himself was an anti-Christian polemic, intended to convey the idea that whereas the name (= idea) of the Messiah was pre-existent, the Messiah himself was not, but was to be a mortal man like any other. Urbach rightly rejects this suggestion.Google Scholar
  7. 49.
    The fullest treatment in English is B. Netanyahu, Isaac Abravanel (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1953).Google Scholar
  8. 61.
    A. J. Heschel, The Prophets (New York, Evanston and London: Harper and Row, 1969) II, ch. 4 (‘Anthropopathy’) expresses this ‘pathos’ powerfully. In his diatribe against Marcion in ch. 6 Heschel does less than justice to Jewish traditions rejecting anthropomorphism and to the acceptance by Jewish philosophers of the doctrine of the impassivity of God.Google Scholar
  9. 87.
    Milovan Djilas, The Unperfect Society, trs. Dorian Cooke (London: Methuen, 1969; and New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1969) p. 2.Google Scholar
  10. 88.
    Karl Marx, Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts. This translation is from Karl Marx, Selected Writings in Sociology and Social Philosophy, ed. T. B. Bottomore and M. Rubel (Harmondsworth, Middx: Penguin, 1963) p. 250.Google Scholar
  11. 91.
    Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno, Preface to The Dialectic of Enlightenment, 2nd edn (London: Verso, 1979) p. 9.Google Scholar
  12. 92.
    Alain Finkielkraut, La Défaite de la Pensée, tr. Dennis O’Keeffe as The Undoing of Thought (London and Lexington: Claridge Press, 1988).Google Scholar
  13. 93.
    Norman Cohn, In Pursuit of the Millennium, 3rd edn (London: Granada, 1970).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Norman Solomon 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norman Solomon
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for the Study of Judaism and Jewish-Christian RelationsSelly Oak CollegeBirminghamUK

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