• Lorne T. Kirby


DNA identification analysis, identity testing, profiling, fingerprinting, typing, or genotyping refers to the characterization of one or more relatively rare features of an individuals’s genome or hereditary makeup. Every human, lower animal, and sexually reproduced plant has a characteristic phenotype or physical appearance because each possesses a unique hereditary composition. The exception to this rule is identical twins, who possess the same unique genotype but, owing to the consequences of complex developmental events, have subtly different phenotypes. The DNA of any individual is identical whether it is extracted from hair bulbs, white blood cells, or a semen specimen. These principles of individual uniqueness and identical DNA structure within all tissues of the same body provide the basis for DNA profiling.


Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Paternity Testing Hair Bulb Game Warden Semen Specimen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. FBI. 1987. Crime in the United States 1987. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. August 1988, 6–9.Google Scholar
  2. Giusti A, Baird M, Pasquale S, Balazs I, and Glassberg J. 1986. Application of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymorphisms to the analysis of DNA recovered from sperm. J. Forensic Sci. 31:409–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Jeffreys AJ, Wilson V, and Thein SL. 1985. Hypervariable ‘minisatellite’ regions in human DNA. Nature 314:67–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kalish CB. 1988. International crime rates. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  5. Kanter E, Baird M, Shaler R, and Balazs I. 1986. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) recovered from dried bloodstains. J. Forensic Sci. 31:403–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Nakamura Y, Leppert M, O’Connell P, Wolff R, Holm T, Culver M, Martin C, Fujimoto E, Hoff M, Kumlin E, and White R. 1987. Variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) markers for human gene mapping. Science 235:1616–1622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Southern EM. 1975. Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. J. Mol. Biol. 98:503–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Tyler MG, Kirby LT, Wood S, Vernon S, and Ferris JAJ. 1986. Human blood stain identificaiton and sex determination in dried blood stains using recombinant DNA techniques. Forensic Sci. Int. 31:267–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Wyman AR and White R. 1980. A highly polymorphic locus in human DNA. Froc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:6754–6758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Stockton Press 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lorne T. Kirby

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations