Experts, Advisers and Consultants in Science, Technology and Development Policy

  • Mekki Mtewa


Instead of helping to solve the development puzzle, experts, advisers and consultants tend to confuse and compound it. Unless a developing government has a prior understanding of the role of these advisers, it cannot use this very expensive manpower resource effectively. This concern, therefore, raises two issues in development policy. The first relates to a government’s manpower policy and how it addresses short-term, highly professionalized consultants. To benefit from this temporary help, should not a developing government include among its permanent staff members possessing the equivalent or corresponding professional skills? In making this determination, it must be presumed that a developing government knows what professional skills to acquire and how to match its advisers with maximum efficiency. It is also imperative that a government knows what policy structures to establish within which these interactions could take place.


Member State Technical Assistance Institutional Policy United Nations Development Program Rockefeller Foundation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Herbert Spencer, Social Statistics (New York: n.p., 1883), pp. 1113Google Scholar
  2. Herbert Wallace Schneider, ‘Science and social progress: a philosophical introduction to moral science’, reprinted from Archives of Philosophy, no. 12 (Lancaster, Pa: n.p., 1920 ).Google Scholar
  3. 2.
    Daniel K. Mbila, ‘Development Planning in Cameroon’, Economic Bulletin for Africa 12 (1976), p. 2.Google Scholar
  4. See also, J. F. Rweyemamu, ‘Development Planning in the United Republic of Tanzania’, Economic Bulletin for Africa 12 (1976).Google Scholar
  5. 3.
    H. S. Aynor, Notes from Africa ( New York: Praeger, 1969 ), p. 130.Google Scholar
  6. A recent view from Tanzania is provided by Rolf E. Vente, Planning Processes: The East African Case ( Munchen: Weltforum Verlag, 1970 )Google Scholar
  7. Arnold J. Meltsner, Policy Analysts in the Bureaucracy (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976 )Google Scholar
  8. Edward H. Althans, ‘Consultancy overseas earnings: a case of good advice’, Barclays Review ( London: Barclays Bank Group, February 1978 )Google Scholar
  9. Gerald E. Caiden, ‘International consultants and development administration’, International Review of Administrative Sciences, Vol. 42 (1976)Google Scholar
  10. and Anne Winslow, ‘The technical assistance experts’, International Development Review, Vol. 4 (September 1962).Google Scholar
  11. 4.
    Gerald M. Meier, ‘The role of an expert advisory group in a young government’, in E. F. Jackson (ed.), Economic Development in Africa ( London: Basil Blackwell, 1962 ), p. 197.Google Scholar
  12. 5.
    Morris Davis, Interpreters for Nigeria: The Third World and International Public Relations ( Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1977 ), pp. 21–23.Google Scholar
  13. 11.
    Consult A New Latin Dictionary, as revised and enlarged by Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (New York: American Book Company, 1907).Google Scholar
  14. 12.
    Herbert Goldhamer, The Adviser ( New York: Elsevier, 1978 ), p. 139Google Scholar
  15. see also D. P. Simpson, Cassell’s New Latin Dictionary ( New York: Funk & Wagnalis, 1959 ).Google Scholar
  16. 13.
    Alfred Hunt, The Management Consultant ( New York: Ronald Press, 1977 ), p. 6.Google Scholar
  17. 15.
    Hendrik S. Houthakker, ‘The Breakdown of Bretton Woods’, in Werner Sichel (ed.), Economic Advice and Executive Policy — Recommendations from Past Members ( New York: Praeger, 1978 ), pp. 45–64.Google Scholar
  18. 16.
    Guy Benveniste, The Politics of Expertise ( Berkeley: Glendessary Press, 1972 ), p. 10.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    See, for example, Friedmann, Wolfgand G., et al., ‘International Law of Co-operation’, Chapter 11, in Cases and Materials on International Law ( St Paul, Minn.: West Publishing, 1969 ), pp. 1008–162.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gerald M. Meier, ‘Development decade in perspective’, in Ronald Robinson (ed.), Developing the Third World: The Experience of the Nineteen-Sixties ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971 ), pp. 18–37.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    There are numerous arguments on the economics of scale and their relation to regional politics. A good assessment, however, appears in Mekki Mtewa’s ‘Economics of Southern African detente’, International Review of History and Political Science, Vol. 14 (1977), pp. 39–54.Google Scholar
  22. 33.
    Karl Marx,A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, trans. B. I. Stone. ( Chicago: Charles Kerr, 1904 ).Google Scholar
  23. 35.
    Kwame Nkrumah, Neo-Colonialism: The Last Stage of Imperialism (London: Thomas Nelson, 1965), pp. x and xv.Google Scholar
  24. 36.
    Delbert A. Snider, Introduction to International Economics ( Homewood, Ill.: Richard D. Irwin, 1971 ), pp. 374–8.Google Scholar
  25. 38.
    For the historical argument which cannot be articulated by anyone else, see F. D. Lugard, The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa (Edinburgh: n.p., 1922).Google Scholar
  26. 39.
    Eugene R. Black, The Diplomacy of Economic Development ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1960 ).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 40.
    Donald G. Morrison and Hugh M. Stevenson, ‘Integration and instability: patterns of African political development’, The American Political Science Review, Vol. 66 (September 1972), p. 904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 41.
    The transactional magnitude is not considered here an incorrect measure of the final content and strength of a national development policy. See Karl W. Deutsch, Nationalism and Social Communication, 2nd edn ( Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1966 ).Google Scholar
  29. 43.
    Warren F. Ilchman and Norman Thomas Uphoff, The Political Economy of Change ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971 ), p. 244.Google Scholar
  30. 44.
    Yehezhel Dror, Public Policymaking Reexamined ( Scranton, Pa.: Chander Publishing Co., 1968 ).Google Scholar
  31. Consult also Robert S. Friedman, Professionalism: Expertise and Policymaking ( New York: General Learning Press, 1971 )Google Scholar
  32. Leonard D. Goodstein, Consulting with Human Service Systems (Manila, Philippines: Addison-Wesley, 1978), especially Chapter 8, pp. 142–61.Google Scholar
  33. For a virtuous assessment of consultants, see F. Steele, Consulting for Organizational Change (Amherst, Mass.: University of Massachusetts Press, 1975 ).Google Scholar
  34. 45.
    Morrison and Stevenson’s assertion about the instability of values relates only to pluralistic societies. See Harry Echstein,A Theory of Stable Democracy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1961 ).Google Scholar
  35. 46.
    Tamar Golan, Educating the Bureaucracy in a New Polity ( New York: Columbia University, Teachers College Press, 1968 ), p. 50.Google Scholar
  36. 48.
    Margaret Wolfson, Aid Management in Developing Countries: A Case Study — The Implementation of Three Aid Projects in Tunisia ( Paris: OECD, 1972 ), p. 45.Google Scholar
  37. 50.
    see A. L. Adu, The Civil Service in Commonwealth Africa (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1969), Chapter 11, pp. 189–99.Google Scholar
  38. 51.
    Here, again, Eugene R. Black’s study is helpful. Read his The Diplomacy of Economic Development ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1960 ).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. A good argument also appears in Vernon McKay, African Diplomacy — Studies in the Determinants of Foreign Policy ( New York: Praeger, 1966 )Google Scholar
  40. Doudou Thiam, The Foreign Policy of African States — ideological Bases. Present Realities and Future Prospects ( New York: Praeger, 1965 )Google Scholar
  41. William I. Zartman, International Relations in the New Africa ( Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1966 ).Google Scholar
  42. 57.
    References to this argument are numerous. For an overview, however, read Daniel J. Boorstin, The Americans: The Democratic Experience ( New York: Random House, 1973 ), p. 575.Google Scholar
  43. 62.
    World Bank, Annual Report ( Washington, DC: World Bank, 1978 ), p. 91.Google Scholar
  44. 67.
    World Bank, Annual Report (1978), op. cit., p. 91.Google Scholar
  45. 85.
    It is not surprising that J. R. Nellis, ‘Expatriates in the government of Kenya’, Jodrnat of Commonwealth Political Studies, Vol.11 (November 1973), pp, 251–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. The problem is not only a Kenyan dilemma; it also affects the Malawians. Read Richard Hodder-Williams, ‘Dr Banda’s Malawi’, The Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, Vol. 12 (March 1974), pp. 91–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. And for a Nigerian assessment, read Omorogbe Nwanwene, ‘British Colonial Policy and Localisation: The Nigerian Experience, 1930–1960’, Journal of Commonwealth Political Studies, Vol. 6 (November 1968), pp. 202–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 91.
    Gunnar Myrdal, The Challenge of World Poverty (New York: Pantheon Books, 1970), p. 351. Read, for example, the story of the Karachi officials when the Pakistanis implied that they coùld buy such [expert] services very much cheaper elsewhere, if they instead were given the dollars for free use. The, new government repaid the friendly reception their putsch was given by the United States by suppressing that report, among other things (p. 350).Google Scholar
  49. 107.
    I Corinthians I: 19–21. Also read E. Harris Harbison, The Christian Scholar in the Age of the Reformation ( New York: Charles Scribner’s, 1956 ).Google Scholar
  50. 108.
    See Burton Pike, Robert Musil: An Introduction to His Word ( Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1961 ), p. 127.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Mekki Mtewa 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mekki Mtewa

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations