Educational Ideologies and Technical Development in the Third World

  • Mehrangiz Najafizadeh
  • Lewis A. Mennerick


Third World countries — whether in Asia, the Middle East, Africa or Latin America — continue to be subject to considerable political, economic and cultural influence by the Western industrialized countries. This influence is manifested in various forms, a paramount one being the spread of Western-oriented education which began during the colonial period and which has intensified since the end of World War II. Although the various cultural and geographical regions of the Third World are diverse in many respects, they are interrelated in that Western-oriented education continues to play a major role in the social and technological transformation of many Third World nations.


Educational Policy World Country Educational Goal Educational Change Educational Development 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ARASTEH, A. R. Education and Social Awakening in Iran: 1850–1968. Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1969.Google Scholar
  2. ARNOVE, R. F. Education and Revolution in Nicaragua. New York: Praeger, 1986.Google Scholar
  3. BEEMAN, W. O. ‘Iran’s religious regime: What makes it tick? Will it ever run down?’ The Annals, Vol. 483 (1986), pp. 73–83.Google Scholar
  4. BLACK, G. and BEVAN, J. The Loss of Fear: Education in Nicaragua Before and After the Revolution. London: World University Service, 1980.Google Scholar
  5. BORGE, T. ‘The new education in the new Nicaragua’. In Marcus, B. (ed.), Nicaragua: The Sandinista People’s Revolution, Speeches by Sandinista Leaders. New York: Pathfinder, 1985, pp. 66–90.Google Scholar
  6. CARDENAL, F. and MILLER, V. ‘Nicaragua 1980: The battle of the ABCs’. Harvard Educational Review, Vol. 51 (1981), pp. 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. CORAGGIO, J. L. and IRVIN, G. ‘Revolution and democracy in Nicara-gua’. Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 12 (1985), pp. 23–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. ‘Education in Nicaragua: More students, but what are they learning?’ Update. Washington DC: Central American Historical Institute, 23 May 1986.Google Scholar
  9. Envio (various issues). Managua: Instituto Historico Centroamericano.Google Scholar
  10. ‘Establishment of the University of Islamic Sciences in Qom’. Washington DC: International Iran Times, Vol. 17 (24 July 1987 ), p. 2.Google Scholar
  11. FOLEY, D. E. ‘Anthropological studies of schooling in developing countries: some recent findings and trends’. Comparative Education Review, Vol. 21 (1977), pp. 311–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. HARRIS, R. ‘The revolutionary process in Nicaragua’. Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 12 (1985), pp. 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. HIRO, D. Iran Under the Ayatollahs. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985.Google Scholar
  14. HUSSAIN, A. Islamic Iran: Revolution and Counter-Revolution. London: Frances Pinter, 1985.Google Scholar
  15. International Iran Times (various issues). Washington DC.Google Scholar
  16. IRFANI, S. Revolutionary Islam in Iran: Popular Liberation or Religious Dictatorship? London: Zed Books, 1983.Google Scholar
  17. ISMAEL, J. S. and ISMAEL T. Y. ‘Social change in Islamic society: the political thought of Ayatollah Khomeini’. Social Problems, Vol. 27 (1980), pp. 601–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. JUNTA FOR NATIONAL RECONSTRUCTION. ‘The philosophy and politics of the government of Nicaragua’. In Rosset, P. and Vandemeer, J. (eds), The Nicaragua Reader: Documents of a Revolution Under Fire. New York: Grove Press, 1983, pp. 254–69.Google Scholar
  19. KATOUZIAN, H. The Political Economy of Modern Iran: Despotism and Pseudo-Modernism, 1926–1979. New York: New York University Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  20. KEDDIE, N. R. Roots of Revolution: An Interpretive History of Modern Iran. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  21. KRAFT, R. J. Nicaragua: educational opportunity under pre- and postrevolutionary conditions’. In Thomas, R. M. (ed.), Politics and Education: Cases from Eleven Nations. New York: Pergamon, 1983, pp. 79–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. KRIKAVOVA, A. and HREBICEK, L. ‘The educational reform in Iran’. Archiv Orientalni, Vol. 49 (1981), pp. 221–39.Google Scholar
  23. MACADAM, C. ‘Towards democracy: the literacy crusade in Nicaragua’. International Review of Education, Vol. 30 (1984), pp. 359–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. MILLER, V. Between Struggle and Hope: The Nicaraguan Literary Crusade. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1985.Google Scholar
  25. MINISTRY OF ISLAMIC GUIDANCE. The Dawn of the Islamic Revolution. Tehran: Ministry of Islamic Guidance, Islamic Republic of Iran, 1982.Google Scholar
  26. MOHSENPOUR, B. ‘Philosophy of education in postrevolutionary Iran’. Comparative Education, Vol. 32 (1988), pp. 58–75.Google Scholar
  27. NAJAFIZADEH, M. and MENNERICK, L. A. ‘Worldwide educational expansion from 1950 to 1980: the failure of the expansion of schooling in developing countries’. The Journal of Developing Areas, Vol. 22 (1988a), pp. 333–58.Google Scholar
  28. NAJAFIZADEH, M. and MENNERICK, L. A. ‘Defining third world education as a social problem: education ideologies and education entrepreneurship in Nicaragua and Iran’. In Miller, G. and Holstein, J. A. (eds), Perspectives on Social Problems, Vol. 1. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1988b, pp. 285–315.Google Scholar
  29. NXUMALO, A. M. The Indigenous Education of the Swazi and Its Implications for Curriculum Development. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Kansas, Lawrence, 1988.Google Scholar
  30. SHORISH, M. M. ‘The Islamic revolution and education in Iran’. Comparative Education Review, Vol. 32 (1988), pp. 58–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. SOBHE, K. ‘Education in revolution: is Iran duplicating the Chinese cultural revolution?’ Comparative Education, Vol. 18 (1982), pp. 271–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. ‘The new education in Nicaragua: an open debate’. Envio, No. 22. Managua: Instituto Historico Centroamericano, April 1983, pp. 20–7.Google Scholar
  33. THOMAS, R. M. ‘Political rationales, human-development theories, and educational practice’. Comparative Education Review, Vol. 30 (1985), pp. 312–20.Google Scholar
  34. THOMPSON, A. R. ‘How far free? International networks of constraint upon national education policy in the Third World’. Comparative Education, Vol. 13 (1977), pp. 155–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. TUNNERMANN, C. Hacia una Nueva Educatiôn en Nicaragua. Managua: Ministerio de Educación, 1980.Google Scholar
  36. Update (various issues). Washington DC: Georgetown University Central American Historical Institute.Google Scholar
  37. WALKER, T. W. (ed.), Nicaragua: The First Five Years. New York: Praeger, 1985.Google Scholar
  38. WALKER, T. W. Nicaragua: The Land of Sandino ( 2nd edn ). Boulder, CO: Westview, 1986.Google Scholar
  39. ZABIH, S. Iran Since the Revolution. London: Croom Helm, 1982.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Mekki Mtewa 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehrangiz Najafizadeh
  • Lewis A. Mennerick

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations