Brain Repair pp 237-249 | Cite as

Regeneration of Adult Rat and Chicken Retinal Ganglion Cell Axons in vitro

  • Solon Thanos
  • Jens Vanselow
Chapter
Part of the Wenner-Gren Center International Symposium Series book series (WGS)

Abstract

It has been established that in the adult rodent central nervous system (CNS), axons have a capacity to regrow after injuries (see Aguayo, 1985 for review). In particular, it has been shown that axotomy resistant adult retinal ganglion cells (RGC) can reelongate the proximal stumps of the transected optic nerve axons into peripheral nerve (PN) grafts apposed to the side of the lesion (Politis and Spencer, 1986; Vidal-Sanz et al. 1987). Well-documented studies have shown that significant numbers of axons can be rescued by the presence of the grafted PN segments and assigned to the peripheral glia (Schwann cells) an crucial role in supporting post-axotomy survival of RGC. The results obtained by the transplantation of peripheral nerve tissue revealed that indeed, the failure of the RGC to regrow their axons in situ is due to the unfavourable optic nerve environment (astrocytes and oligodentrocytes), since the neurons possess principally the intrinsic ability for axonal regrowth.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aguayo, A. J. (1985). Axonal regeneration from injured neurons in the adult mammalian central nervous system. In Synaptic Plasticity, (ed. C. W. Cotman). Guilford Press, New York, pp. 457–484.Google Scholar
  2. Barde, Y. A., Edgar, D. and Thoenen, H. (1982). Purification of a new neurotrophic factor from mammalian brain. EMBO J. 1, 549–553.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Ford-Holevinski, T. S., Hopkins, J. M., McCoy, J. P. and Agranoff, B. W. (1986). Laminin supports neurite outgrowth from expiants of axotomized adult rat retinal neurons. Dev. Brain Res. 28, 121–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Godement, P., Vanselow, J., Thanos, S. and Bonhoeffer, F. (1987). A study of developing visual systems with a new method for staining neurones and their processes in fixed tissue. Development 101, 697–713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Johnson, A. R., Wigley, C. B., Gregson, N. A., Cohen, J. and Berry, M. (1988). Neither laminin nor prior optic nerve section are essential for the regeneration of adult mammalian retinal ganglion cell axons in vitro. J. Neurocytol. 17, 95–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Needham, L. K., Tennekoon, G. I. and McKhann, G. M. (1987). Selective growth of rat Schwann cells in neuron-and serum-free primary culture. J. Neurosci. 7, 1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Perry, V.H. (1979). The ganglion cell layer of the retina of the rat: a Golgy study. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 204, 363–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Politis, M. J. and Spencer, P.J. (1986). Regeneration of rat optic axons into peripheral nerve grafts. Exp. Neurol. 91, 52–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Richardson, P. M. and Ebendal, T. (1982). Nerve growth activities in rat peripheral nerve. Brain Res. 246, 57–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Richardson, P. M., Issa, V. M. K. and Shemie, S. (1982). Regeneration and retrograde degeneration of axons in the rat optic nerve. J. Neurocytol. 11, 949–966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Schwab, M. E. and Caroni, P. (1988). Oligodendrocytes and CNS myelin are non-permissive substrates for neurite growth and fibroblast spreading in vitro. J. Neurosci. 8, 2381–2393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Schwab, M. E. and Thoenen, H. (1985). Dissociated neurons regenerate into sciatic but not optic nerve expiants in culture irrespective of neurotrophic factors. J. Neurosci. 5, 2415–2423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. So, K.-F., Xiao, Y.-M. and Diao, Y.-C. (1986). Effects on the growth of damaged ganglion cell axons after peripheral nerve transplantation in adult hamsters. Brain Res. 377, 168–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Thanos, S. (1988). Alterations in the morphology of ganglion cell dendrites in the adult rat retina after optic transection and grafting of peripheral nerve segments. Cell Tissue Res. 254, 599–609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Thanos, S. and Aguayo, A.J. (1988). Changes in dendrites of adult rat ganglion cells regenerating axons into peripheral grafts. In Post-Lesion Neural Plasticity, (ed. H. Flohr). Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  16. Thanos, S., Baehr, M., Barde, Y. A. and Vanselow, J. (1989). Survival and axonal elongation of adult rat retinal ganglion cells. In vitro effects of lesioned sciatic nerve and brain derived neurotrophic factor. Eur. J. Neurosci. 1, 19–26.Google Scholar
  17. Thanos, S. and Vanselow, J. (1989). Adult retinal ganglion cells retain the ability to regenerate their axons up to several weeks after axotomy. J. Neurosci. Res. 22, 144–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Vidal-Sanz, M., Bray, G. M., Villegas-Perez, M. P., Thanos, S. and Aguayo, A. J. (1987). Axonal regeneration and synapse formation in the superior colliculus by retinal ganglion cells in adult rat. J. Neurosci. 7, 2894–2909.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The contributors 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Solon Thanos
  • Jens Vanselow

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations