Advertisement

Enclosures in Britain 1750–1830

  • Michael Turner
Chapter
Part of the Studies in Economic and Social History book series (SESH)

Abstract

THE term enclosure mainly refers to that land reform which transformed a traditional method of agriculture under systems of co-operation and communality in communally administered holdings, usually in large fields which were devoid of physical territorial boundaries, into a system of agricultural holding in severalty by separating with physical boundaries one person’s land from that of his neighbours. This was, then, the disintegration and reformation of the open fields into individual ownership. Inter alia enclosure registered specific ownership, adjudicated on shared ownership (for example by identifying and separating common rights), and declared void for all time communal obligations, privileges and rights. Enclosure also meant the subdivision of areas of commons, heaths, moors, fens and wastes into separate landholdings and again involved the abandonment of obligations, privileges and rights.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

(a) Review and bibliography

  1. [1]
    J. Blum, ‘Review Article. English Parliamentary Enclosure’, Journal of Modern History, 103 (1981).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    J. G. Brewer, Enclosures and the Open Fields: A Bibliography (1972).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    R. Morgan, Dissertations on British Agrarian History (1981).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    M. E. Turner, ‘Recent Progress in the Study of Parliamentary Enclosure’, The Local Historian, 12 (Feb. 1976).Google Scholar

(b) Sources

  1. [5]
    I. H. Adams, Directory of Former Scottish Commonties (Scottish Record Society, 2, 1971).Google Scholar
  2. [6]
    I. Bowen, The Great Inclosures of Common Lands in Wales (1914).Google Scholar
  3. [7]
    T. I. J. Jones, Acts of Parliament Concerning Wales 1714–1901 (1959).Google Scholar
  4. [8]
    Return, ‘Return of Commons (Inclosure Awards)’, Parliamentary Papers — House of Commons, 50 (1904).Google Scholar
  5. [9]
    Return, ‘Return of Inclosure Acts’, Parliamentary Papers — House of Commons, 399 (1914).Google Scholar
  6. [10]
    W. E. Tate, A Domesday of English Enclosure Acts and Awards (1978).Google Scholar

(c) Contemporary

  1. [11]
    Board of Agriculture, General Report on Enclosures (1808).Google Scholar
  2. [12]
    T. Davis, General View of the Agriculture of Wiltshire (1811).Google Scholar
  3. [13]
    H. Homer, An Essay on the Nature and Method of Ascertaining the Specific Shares of Proprietors upon the Inclosure of Common Fields (1766).Google Scholar
  4. [14]
    Reports, ‘Three Reports from the Select Committee Appointed to take into Consideration the Means of Promoting the Cultivation and Improvement of the Waste, Uninclosed and Unproductive Lands in the Kingdom’, Parliamentary Papers, House of Commons Select Committee Reports, 9 (1795–1801).Google Scholar
  5. [15]
    T. Stone, Suggestions for Rendering the Inclosure of Common Fields and Waste Lands a Source of Population and Riches (1787).Google Scholar
  6. [16]
    A. Young, The Farmer’s Tour through the East of England (1771).Google Scholar
  7. [17]
    —, General View of the Agriculture of Oxfordshire (1813).Google Scholar

(d) Books and articles pre-1940 (England and wales)

  1. [18]
    W. H. R. Curtler, The Enclosure and Redistribution of our Land (1920).Google Scholar
  2. [19]
    E. Davies, ‘The Small Landowner 1780–1832, in the Light of the Land Tax Assessments’, EcHR, 1st Ser., 1 (1927).Google Scholar
  3. [20]
    E. C. K. Gonner, Common Land and Inclosure (1912).Google Scholar
  4. [21]
    H. L. Gray, ‘Yeoman Farming in Oxfordshire from the Sixteenth Century to the Nineteenth’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 24 (1910).Google Scholar
  5. [22]
    J. L. and B. Hammond, The Village Labourer (1911).Google Scholar
  6. [23]
    A. H. Johnson, The Disappearance of the Small Landowner (1909).Google Scholar
  7. [24]
    V. M. Lavrovsky, ‘Tithe Commutation as a Factor in the Gradual Decrease of Landownership by the English Peasantry’, EcHR, 1st Ser., 4 (1932–4).Google Scholar
  8. [25]
    —, ‘Parliamentary Enclosures in the County of Suffolk, (1797–1814)’, EcHR, 1st Ser., 7 (1937).Google Scholar
  9. [26]
    J. Rae, ‘Why have the Yeomanry Perished?’, Contemporary Review, 44 (1883).Google Scholar
  10. [27]
    G. Slater, The English Peasantry and the Enclosure of Common Fields (1907).Google Scholar
  11. [28]
    T. H. Swales, ‘The Parliamentary Enclosures of Lindsey’, Reports and Papers of the Architectural and Archaeological Societies of Lincolnshire and Northamptonshire, in two parts, old series 42 (1937), new series 2 (1938).Google Scholar

(e) Books and articles 1940 and later (England And Wales)

  1. [29]
    R. C. Allen, ‘The Efficiency and Distributional Consequences of Eighteenth Century Enclosures’, Economic Journal, 92 (1982).Google Scholar
  2. [30]
    W. G. Armstrong, ‘The Influence of Demographic Factors on the Position of the Agricultural Labourer in England and Wales, c. 1750–1914’, AHR, 29 (1981).Google Scholar
  3. [31]
    T. S. Ashton, An Economic History of England: the Eighteenth Century (1955).Google Scholar
  4. [32]
    B. D. Baack, ‘The Development of Exclusive Property Rights to Land in England: An Exploratory Essay’, Economy and History, 22 (1979).Google Scholar
  5. [33]
    B. D. Baack and R. P. Thomas, ‘The Enclosure Movement and the Supply of Labour during the Industrial Revolution’, JEEH, 3 (1974).Google Scholar
  6. [34]
    T. W. Beastall, A North Country Estate: The Lumleys and Saundersons as Landowners 1600–1900 (1975).Google Scholar
  7. [35]
    J. V. Beckett, ‘Regional Variation and the Agricultural Depression’, EcHR, 35 (1982).Google Scholar
  8. [36]
    —, ‘The Decline of the Small Landowner in Eighteenth and Nineteenth-Century England: Some Regional Considerations’, AHR, 30 (1982).Google Scholar
  9. [37]
    M. W. Beresford, ‘The Commissioners of Enclosure’, EcHR, 1st Ser., 16 (1946).Google Scholar
  10. [38]
    —, ‘The Decree Rolls of Chancery as a Source for Economic History, 1547-c.1700’, EcHR, 32 (1979).Google Scholar
  11. [39]
    B. J. Buchanan, ‘The Financing of Parliamentary Waste Land Enclosure: Some Evidence from North Somerset, 1770–1830’, AHR, 30 (1982).Google Scholar
  12. [40]
    R. A. Butlin, ‘Enclosure and Improvement in Northumberland in the Sixteenth Century’, Archaeologia Aeliana, 45 (1967).Google Scholar
  13. [41]
    —, ‘Field Systems of Northumberland and Durham’, in A. R. H. Baker and R. A. Butlin (eds), Studies of Field Systems in the British Isles (1973).Google Scholar
  14. [42]
    —, ‘The Enclosure of Open Fields and Extinction of Common Rights in England, c. 1600–1750: A Review’, in H. S. A. Fox and R. A. Butlin (eds), Change in the Countryside: Essays on Rural England, 1500–1900 (1979).Google Scholar
  15. [43]
    J. D. Chambers, ‘Enclosure and the Small Landowner’, EcHR, 1st Ser., 10 (1940).Google Scholar
  16. [44]
    —, ‘Enclosure and the Small Landowner in Lindsey’, The Lincolnshire Historian, 1 (1947).Google Scholar
  17. [45]
    —, ‘Enclosure and Labour Supply in the Industrial Revolution’, EcHR, 5 (1953), and reprinted in E. L. Jones (ed.), Agriculture and Economic Growth in England, 1650–1815 (1967).Google Scholar
  18. [46]
    J. D. Chambers and G. E. Mingay, The Agricultural Revolution, 1750–1880 (1966).Google Scholar
  19. [47]
    J. Chapman, ‘Land Purchases at Enclosure: Evidence from West Sussex’, The Local Historian, 12 (1977).Google Scholar
  20. [48]
    —, ‘Some Problems in the Interpretation of Enclosure Awards’, AHR, 26 (1978).Google Scholar
  21. [49]
    —, ‘The Parliamentary Enclosures of West Sussex’, Southern History, 2 (1980).Google Scholar
  22. [50]
    J. Chapman and T. M. Harris, ‘The Accuracy of Enclosure Estimates: Some Evidence from Northern England’, Journal of Historical Geography, 8 (1982).Google Scholar
  23. [51]
    N. F. R. Crafts, ‘Determinants of the Rate of Parliamentary Enclosure’, EEH, 14 (1977).Google Scholar
  24. [52]
    —, ‘Enclosure and Labour Supply Revisited’, EEH, 15 (1978).Google Scholar
  25. [53]
    —, ‘Income Elasticities of Demand and the Release of Labour by Agriculture During the British Industrial Revolution’, JEEH, 9 (1980).Google Scholar
  26. [54]
    C. Dahlman, The Open Field System and Beyond: A Property Rights Analysis of an Economic Institution (1980).Google Scholar
  27. [55]
    H. C. Darby, ‘The Age of the Improver: 1600–1800’, in H. C. Darby (ed.), A New Historical Geography of England (1973).Google Scholar
  28. [56]
    S. R. Eyre, ‘The Upward Limit of Enclosure on the East Moor of North Derbyshire’, TrIBG, 23 (1957).Google Scholar
  29. [57]
    R. T. Fieldhouse, ‘Agriculture in Wensleydale from 1600 to the Present Day’, Northern History, 16 (1980).Google Scholar
  30. [58]
    D. V. Fowkes, ‘Mapleton an Eighteenth Century Private Enclosure’, Derbyshire Miscellany, 6 (1972).Google Scholar
  31. [59]
    D. B. Grigg, ‘Small and Large Farms in England and Wales’, Geography,48 (1963).Google Scholar
  32. [60]
    —, ‘The Land Tax Returns’, AHR, 11 (1963).Google Scholar
  33. [61]
    —, The Agricultural Revolution in South Lincolnshire (1966).Google Scholar
  34. [62]
    M. Havinden, ‘Agricultural Progress in Open Field Oxfordshire’, AHR, 9 (1961).Google Scholar
  35. [63]
    R. I. Hodgson, ‘The Progress of Enclosure in County Durham, 1550–1870’, in H. S. A. Fox and R. A. Butlin (eds), Change in the Countryside: Essays on Rural England, 1500–1900 (1979).Google Scholar
  36. [64]
    B. A. Holderness, ‘Capital Formation in Agriculture, 1750–1850’, in J. P. P. Higgins and S. Pollard (eds), Aspects of Capital Investment in Great Britain 1750–1850 (1971).Google Scholar
  37. [65]
    W. G. Hoskins, ‘The Reclamation of the Waste in Devon, 1550–1800’, EcHR, 1st Ser., 13 (1943).Google Scholar
  38. [66]
    H. G. Hunt, ‘The Chronology of Parliamentary Enclosure in Leicestershire’, EcHR, 10 (1957).Google Scholar
  39. [67]
    —, ‘Landownership and Enclosure, 1750–1830’, EcHR, 11 (1958–9).Google Scholar
  40. [68]
    S. A. Johnson, ‘Some Aspects of Enclosure and Changing Agricultural Landscapes in Lindsey from the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth Century’, Reports and Papers of the Lincolnshire Architectural and Archaeological Society, 9 (1962).Google Scholar
  41. [69]
    E. Kerridge, The Agricultural Revolution (1967).Google Scholar
  42. [70]
    V. M. Lavrovsky, Parliamentary Enclosure of the Common Fields in England at the end of the eighteenth century and beginning of the nineteenth (1940); this is an English translation of the title only. The book has never been translated but see the review by C. Hill, EcHR, 1st Ser., 12 (1942).Google Scholar
  43. [71]
    —, ‘The Expropriation of the English Peasantry in the Eighteenth Century’, EcHR, 9 (1956–7).Google Scholar
  44. [72]
    D. N. McCloskey, ‘The Enclosure of Open Fields: Preface to a study of its Impact on the Efficiency of English Agriculture in the Eighteenth Century’, Journal of Economic History, 32 (1972).Google Scholar
  45. [73]
    —, ‘The Persistence of English Common Fields’, in W. N. Parker and E. L. Jones (eds), European Peasants and their Markets: Essays in Agrarian History (1975).Google Scholar
  46. [74]
    —, ‘The Economics of Enclosure: A Market Analysis’, in W. N. Parker and E. L. Jones (eds), European Peasants and their Markets: Essays in Agrarian History (1975).Google Scholar
  47. [75]
    —, ‘English Open Fields as Behaviour Towards Risk’, Research in Economic History, 1 (1976).Google Scholar
  48. [76]
    J. M. Martin, ‘Landownership and the Land Tax Returns’, AHR, 14 (1966).Google Scholar
  49. [77]
    —, ‘The Parliamentary Enclosure Movement and Rural Society in Warwickshire’, AHR, 15 (1967).Google Scholar
  50. [78]
    —, ‘The Cost of Parliamentary Enclosure in Warwickshire’, in E. L. Jones (ed.), Agriculture and Economic Growth in England 1650–1815 (1967).Google Scholar
  51. [79]
    —, ‘Members of Parliament and Enclosure: A Reconsideration’, AHR, 27 (1979).Google Scholar
  52. [80]
    —, ‘The Small Landowner and Parliamentary Enclosure in Warwickshire’, EcHR, 32 (1979).Google Scholar
  53. [81]
    John Martin, ‘Enclosure and the Inquisitions of 1607: An Examination of Dr Kerridge’s Article, “The Returns of the Inquisitions of Depopulation”’, AHR, 30 (1982).Google Scholar
  54. [82]
    D. R. Mills, ‘Enclosure in Kesteven’, AHR, 7 (1959).Google Scholar
  55. [83]
    G. E. Mingay, ‘The Size of Farms in the Eighteenth Century’, EcHR, 14 (1962).Google Scholar
  56. [84]
    —, ‘The Land Tax Assessments and the Small Landowner’, EcHR, 17 (1964).Google Scholar
  57. [85]
    —, Enclosure and the Small Farmer in the Age of the Industrial Revolution (1968).Google Scholar
  58. [86]
    —, (ed.),Arthur Young and His Times (1975).Google Scholar
  59. [87]
    J. L. Purdum, ‘Profitability and Timing of Parliamentary Land Enclosures’, EEH, 15 (1978).Google Scholar
  60. [88]
    B. K. Roberts, ‘Field Systems in the West Midlands’, in A. R. H. Baker and R. A. Butlin (eds), Studies of Field Systems in the British Isles (1973).Google Scholar
  61. [89]
    E. and R. Russell, Landscape Changes in South Humberside: The Enclosures of Thirty-Seven Parishes (1982).Google Scholar
  62. [90]
    R. E. Sandell, Abstracts of Wiltshire Inclosure Awards and Agreements (Wiltshire Record Society, 25 for 1969 published 1971).Google Scholar
  63. [91]
    J. Saville, ‘Primitive Accumulation and Early Industrialisation in Britain’, The Socialist Register, 6 (1969).Google Scholar
  64. [92]
    L. D. Stamp and W. G. Hoskins, The Common Lands of England and Wales (1963).Google Scholar
  65. [93]
    W. E. Tate, ‘Members of Parliament and the Proceedings upon Enclosure Bills’, EcHR, 1st Ser., 12 (1942).Google Scholar
  66. [94]
    —, ‘Parliamentary Counter-Petitions During the Enclosures of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries’, English Historical Review, 59 (1944).Google Scholar
  67. [95]
    —, ‘Opposition to Parliamentary Enclosure in Eighteenth Century England’, Agricultural History, 19 (1945).Google Scholar
  68. [96]
    —, ‘Members of Parliament and Their Personal Relations to Enclosure’, Agricultural History, 23 (1949).Google Scholar
  69. [97]
    —, ‘The Cost of Parliamentary Enclosure in England’, EcHR, 5 (1952).Google Scholar
  70. [98]
    —, The English Village Community and the Enclosure Movement (1967).Google Scholar
  71. [99]
    D. Thomas, Agriculture in Wales During the Napoleonic Wars (1963).Google Scholar
  72. [100]
    J. G. Thomas, ‘The Distribution of the Commons in part of Arwystli at the Time of Enclosure’, Montgomeryshire Collections, 54 (1955).Google Scholar
  73. [101]
    —, ‘Some Enclosure Patterns in Central Wales’, Geography, 42 (1957).Google Scholar
  74. [102]
    E. P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (1963).Google Scholar
  75. [103]
    K. Tribe, Genealogies of Capitalism (1981).Google Scholar
  76. [104]
    M. E. Turner, ‘The Cost of Parliamentary Enclosure in Buckinghamshire’, AHR, 21 (1973).Google Scholar
  77. [105]
    —, ‘Parliamentary Enclosure and Landownership Change in Buckinghamshire’, EcHR, 28 (1975).Google Scholar
  78. [106]
    —, ‘Enclosure Commissioners and Buckinghamshire Parliamentary Enclosure’, AHR, 25 (1977).Google Scholar
  79. [107]
    —, English Parliamentary Enclosure (1980).Google Scholar
  80. [108]
    —, ‘Cost, Finance, and Parliamentary Enclosure’, EcHR, 34 (1981).Google Scholar
  81. [109]
    —, ‘Agricultural Productivity in England in the Eighteenth Century: Evidence from Crop Yields’, EcHR, 35 (1982).Google Scholar
  82. [110]
    —, (ed.), Home Office Acreage Returns (HO67), (List and Index Society in four volumes, 189–90, 1982, and 195–6, 1983).Google Scholar
  83. [111]
    J. Walton, ‘The Residential Mobility of Farmers and its Relationship to the Parliamentary Enclosure Movement in Oxfordshire’, in A. D. M. Phillips and B. J. Turton (eds), Environment, Man and Economic Change (1975).Google Scholar
  84. [112]
    M. Williams, ‘The Enclosure and Reclamation of Wasteland in England and Wales in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries’, TrIBG, 51 (1970).Google Scholar
  85. [113]
    —, ‘The Enclosure and Reclamation of the Mendip Hills’, AHR, 19 (1971).Google Scholar
  86. [114]
    —, ‘The Enclosure of Wasteland in Somerset’, TrIBG, 57 (1972).Google Scholar
  87. [115]
    E. M. Yates, ‘Enclosure and the Rise of Grassland Farming in Staffordshire’, North Staffordshire Journal of Field Studies, 14 (1974).Google Scholar
  88. [116]
    J. A. Yelling, ‘Common Land and Enclosure in East Worcestershire, 1540–1870’, TrIBG, 45 (1968).Google Scholar
  89. [117]
    —, ‘Changes in Crop Production in East Worcestershire, 1540–1867’, AHR 21 (1973).Google Scholar
  90. [118]
    —, Common Field and Enclosure in England 1450–1850 (1977).Google Scholar

(f) Scotland

  1. [119]
    I. H. Adams, ‘The Land Surveyor and His Influence on the Scottish Rural Landscape’, SGM, 84 (1968).Google Scholar
  2. [120]
    —, ‘Economic Process and the Scottish Land Surveyor’, Imago Mundi, 27 (1975).Google Scholar
  3. [121]
    —, ‘The Agricultural Revolution in Scotland: Contributions to The Debate’, Area, 10 (1978).Google Scholar
  4. [122]
    —, ‘The Agents of Agricultural Change’, in M. L. Parry and T. R. Slater (eds) ([140] below).Google Scholar
  5. [123]
    J. B. Caird, ‘The Making of the Scottish Rural Landscape’, SGM, 80 (1964).Google Scholar
  6. [124]
    —, ‘The Reshaped Agricultural Landscape’, in M. L. Parry and T. R. Slater (eds) ([140] below).Google Scholar
  7. [125]
    I. Carter, Farmlife in Northeast Scotland 1840–1914 (1979).Google Scholar
  8. [126]
    R. A. Dodgshon, ‘The Removal of Runrig in Roxburghshire and Berwickshire 1680–1766’, Scottish Studies, 16 (1972).Google Scholar
  9. [127]
    —, ‘Towards an Understanding and Definition of Runrig: the Evidence for Roxburghshire and Berwickshire’, TrIBG, 64 (1975).Google Scholar
  10. [128]
    —, ‘The Origins of Traditional Field Systems’, in M. L. Parry and T. R. Slater (eds) ([140] below).Google Scholar
  11. [129]
    R. A. Gailey, ‘Agrarian Improvement and the Development of Enclosure in the South-West Highlands of Scotland’, Scottish Historical Review, 42 (1963).Google Scholar
  12. [130]
    I. F. Grant, ‘The Social Effects of the Agricultural Reforms and Enclosure Movement in Aberdeenshire’, Economic History, 1 (1926–9).Google Scholar
  13. [131]
    M. Gray, ‘Scottish Emigration: The Social Impact of Agrarian Change in the Rural Lowlands, 1775–1875’, Perspectives in American History, 7 (1973).Google Scholar
  14. [132]
    H. Hamilton, An Economic History of Scotland in the Eighteenth Century (1963).Google Scholar
  15. [133]
    J. E. Handley, Scottish Farming in the Eighteenth Century (1953).Google Scholar
  16. [134]
    —, The Agricultural Revolution in Scotland (1963).Google Scholar
  17. [135]
    J. H. G. Lebon, ‘The Process of Enclosure in the Western Lowlands’, SGM, 62 (1946).Google Scholar
  18. [136]
    D. R. Mills, ‘A Scottish Agricultural Revolution?’, Area, 8 (1976).Google Scholar
  19. [137]
    A. C. O’Dell, ‘A View of Scotland in the Middle of the Eighteenth Century’, SGM, 69 (1953).Google Scholar
  20. [138]
    M. L. Parry, ‘A Scottish Agricultural Revolution?’, Area, 8 (1976).Google Scholar
  21. [139]
    —, ‘Changes in the Extent of Improved Farmland’, in M. L. Parry and T. R. Slater (eds) ([140] below).Google Scholar
  22. [140]
    M. L. Parry and T. R. Slater (eds), The Making of the Scottish Countryside (1980).Google Scholar
  23. [141]
    T. C. Smout, A History of the Scottish People 1560–1830 (1969).Google Scholar
  24. [142]
    —, Introduction to Sir John Sinclair (ed.), The Statistical Account of Scotland 1791–99, Vol. II, The Lothians (1975).Google Scholar
  25. [143]
    T. C. Smout and A. Fenton, ‘Scottish Agriculture before the Improvers: An Exploration’, AHR, 13 (1965).Google Scholar
  26. [144]
    J. A. Symon, Scottish Farming Past and Present (1959).Google Scholar
  27. [145]
    B. M. W. Third, ‘Changing Landscape and Social Structure in Scottish Lowlands as Revealed by Eighteenth Century Estate Plans’, SGM, 71 (1955).Google Scholar
  28. [146]
    G. Whittington, ‘The Problem of Runrig’, SGM, 86 (1970).Google Scholar
  29. [147]
    —, ‘Was there a Scottish Agricultural Revolution?’, Area, 7 (1975).Google Scholar
  30. [148]
    —, ‘Field Systems of Scotland’, in A. R. H. Baker and R. A. Butlin (eds), Studies of Field Systems in the British Isles (1973).Google Scholar
  31. [149]
    I. D. Whyte, ‘The Agricultural Revolution in Scotland: Contributions to the Debate’, Area, 10 (1978).Google Scholar
  32. [150]
    —, Agriculture and Society in Seventeenth Century Scotland (1979).Google Scholar
  33. [151]
    —, ‘The Emergence of the New Estate Structure’, in M. L. Parry and T. R. Slater (eds) ([140] above).Google Scholar

(g) Theses (see also [3] above, pp. 69–73)

  1. [152]
    J. R. Ellis, Parliamentary Enclosure in Wiltshire (PhD, University of Bristol, 1971).Google Scholar
  2. [153]
    H. G. Hunt, The Parliamentary Enclosure Movement in Leicestershire, 1730–1842 (PhD, University of London, 1956).Google Scholar
  3. [154]
    J. M. Martin, Warwickshire and the Parliamentary Enclosure Movement (PhD, University of Birmingham, 1965).Google Scholar
  4. [155]
    J. M. Neesom, Common Right and Enclosure in Eighteenth Century Northamptonshire (PhD, University of Warwick, 1977).Google Scholar
  5. [156]
    W. S. Rodgers, The Distribution of Parliamentary Enclosures in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 1729–1850 (MComm, University of Leeds, 1953).Google Scholar
  6. [157]
    M. E. Turner, Some Social and Economic Considerations of Parliamentary Enclosure in Buckinghamshire, 1738–1865 (PhD, University of Sheffield, 1973).Google Scholar
  7. [158]
    J. R. Walton, Aspects of Agrarian Change in Oxfordshire, 1750–1880 (DPhil, University of Oxford, 1976).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Economic History Society 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Turner
    • 1
  1. 1.University of HullUK

Personalised recommendations