Implications for Breeders

  • William Lesser


Consumers of animal protein in the USA and elsewhere in the world continue to benefit from ongoing cost-reducing breed improvements. Most dramatic of these have been in dairy cattle, where the output per cow has doubled over the past 20 years, so that output is comparable, but herd size is roughly half what it was in the 1960s. In the poultry industry an essentially new product was created with the advent of the “broiler” in the pre-World War II era. Much of these and other less obvious efficiency improvements are attributable to the breeding sector, that group of firms which identifies and combines desirable traits of existing strains to provide new variants that are superior in one or more characteristics. The efficiency of animal agriculture then depends heavily on the functioning of these firms so they assume an importance, and visibility, far in excess of their dollar value of sales.


Dairy Cattle Beef Cattle Artificial Insemination Compulsory License Patent Holder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acker, D. (1983) Animal Science and Industry. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 3rd edn.Google Scholar
  2. Adler, R. G. (1988) Controlling the Applications of Biotechnology: A Critical Analysis of the Proposed Moratorium on Animal Patenting. Harvard J. Law Technol., 1: 1–61.Google Scholar
  3. Bent, S., R. Schwaab, D. Jeffery, and D. Conlin (1987) Intellectual Property Rights in Biotechnology Worldwide. New York: Stockton Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Butler, L. J. and B. W. Marion (1985) The Impact of Patent Protection on the US Seed Industry and Public Plant Breeding. University of Wisconsin Monograph, NC-117, no. 16.Google Scholar
  5. Campbell, J. R. and J. F. Lasley (1985) The Science of Animals that Serve Humanity. New York: McGraw-Hill, 3rd edn.Google Scholar
  6. Doyle, J. (1988) Testimony before the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Courts, Civil Liberties, and the Administration of Justice. In: Hearings, Patents and the Constitution: Transgenic Animals, Committee on the Judiciary, serial no. 23.Google Scholar
  7. Dresser, R. (1988) Ethical and Legal Issues in Patenting New Animal Life. Jurimet. J., 28: 399–435.Google Scholar
  8. Gillespie, J. R. (1983) Modern Livestock and Poultry Production. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers, 2nd edn.Google Scholar
  9. Gilliam, H. C., Jr. (1984) The US Beef Cow-Calf Industry. US Dept. Agr., Econ. Res. Service, Agr. Econ. Rpt. no. 515.Google Scholar
  10. Hayenga, M. G., V. J. Rhodes, J. A. Brandt, and R. E. Deiter (1985) The US Pork Sector: Changing Structure and Organization. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Henn, H. G. (1988) Copyright Law: A Practitioner’s Guide. New York: Practising Law Institute, 2nd edn.Google Scholar
  12. House Judiciary Committee Report on HR 4970 (1988) In: BNA’s Patent, Trademark and Copyright J., 36: 503–81.Google Scholar
  13. Koch, R. M. (1974) Breeding for Meat Production. In: Animal Agriculture, ed. H. H. Cole and M. Ronning. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Co.Google Scholar
  14. Lesser, W. (1987) Applying Animal Patents in Agriculture: Lessons for Farmers and the Patent Office for Self-Reproducible Animals. In: World Intellectual Property Organization Proceedings, Symposium on the Protection of Biotechnological Inventions, June 4–5, 1987, Ithaca, NY, pp. 135–54.Google Scholar
  15. Marion, B. M. (1986) The Organization and Performance of the US Food System. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  16. Marion, B. M. and H. B. Arthur (1973) Dynamic Factors in Vertical Commodity Systems: A Case Study of the Broiler System. OARC Res. Bull., no. 1065.Google Scholar
  17. Scherer, F. M. (1980) Industrial Market Structure and Economic Performance. Chicago: Rand McNally, 2nd edn.Google Scholar
  18. Smith, C. (1987) Potential for Animal Breeding, Current and Future. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Quantitative Genetics, ed. B. S. Weir, E. J. Eisen, M. M. Goodman, and G. Namkoong. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates, 2nd edn.Google Scholar
  19. Strong, W. S. (1984) The Copyright Book: A Practical Guide. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2nd edn.Google Scholar
  20. Van Arsdall, R. N. and K. E. Nelson (1984) US Hog Industry. US Dept. Agr., Econ. Res. Service, Agr. Econ. Rpt., no. 511.Google Scholar
  21. Van Vleck, L. D. (1987) Observations on Selection Advances in Dairy Cattle. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Quantitative Genetics, ed. B. S. Weir, E. J. Eisen, M. M. Goodman, and G. Namkoong. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates, 2nd edn.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Lesser

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations