There is now good evidence that a high proportion of today’s deaths from cancer, both in the Western world and in Third World countries, might be avoidable. However, while for some tumours such as lung, skin or liver cancers, the necessary preventive measures are fairly clear, for most others they are still uncertain. Inadequate knowledge leads to practical dilemmas in our approaches to cancer prevention, both those aiming to prevent cancer appearing (primary prevention), and those aiming to reduce cancer mortality by earlier diagnosis (secondary prevention).
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