Economic and Political Reforms in Socialist Countries of Eastern Europe: a Comparative Analysis

  • Jerzy J. Wiatr


In the second half of the 1980s the movement towards socioeconomic reforms in socialist countries has increased in force.


Socialist World Economic Reform Communist Party Socialist Country Political Reform 
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  1. 1.
    This is how the well-known Yugoslav author and politician Vladimir Dedijer puts it. See V. Dedijer, Izgubljena bitka J. V. Stalina (Sarajevo, 1969) and, by the same author, Tito (New York, 1953).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Compare on this topic: Fred Warner Neal, Titoism in Action: The Reforms in Yugoslavia after 1948 (Berkeley, Los Angeles, 1958) and A. Ross Johnson, The Transformation of Communist Ideology: The Yugoslav Case, 1945–1953 (Cambridge, MA, 1972).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Edvard Kardelj, Integration of Labour in a Society of Self-Management (Belgrade, 1981). A series of articles on Kardelj’s contribution, with a wide selection of his writings, is included in a special edition of the Slovenian paper Teorija in Praksa (No. 7–9, 1979).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boris Kidric, Sabrana dela (Belgrade, 1959–60, 3 vols).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    The former vice-president of Yugoslavia, Milovan Djilas, went furthest in negating the Soviet system. In 1954 he was removed from all party and state posts. Djilas, from criticising the Stalinist system, went on to a total criticism of communism; see M. Djilas, The New Class: An Analysis of the Communist System (New York, 1957).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Josip Broz-Tito, Govori i clanci (Zagreb, 1959, vol. 6, p. 265; interview given on 9 November 1951).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    See Svetozar Stojanovic, Between Ideals and Reality: A Critique of Socialism and Its Future (New York, 1973; Yugoslav edition under the title ‘Izmedju ideala i stvarnosti’ appeared in Belgrade in 1969). See also Miloslav Zhivkovic, ‘Mit i dogma u jugosloveskoj ideologiji’, Sociologija, vol. 27, no. 1–2, 1985, pp. 159–72.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    The best analysis of Yugoslav elections was given by Lenard Cohen and Paul Warvick, Political Cohesion in a Fragile Mosaic: The Yugoslav Experience (Boulder, Co, 1983).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    From amongst Western works on the topic of Czechoslovak reforms the most valuable, albeit controversial, are the works of Galia Golan: The Czechoslovak Reform Movement (Cambridge, 1971) and Reform Rule in Czechoslovakia: The Dubček Era, 1968–1969 (Cambridge, 1973); and H. Gordon Skilling, Czechoslovakia’s Interrupted Revolution (Princeton, NJ, 1976). From the perspective of his own experience, this period was discussed by Zdenek Mlinaz, a former Secretary of the Central Committee of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, now a political scientist, in Ceskoslovensky pokus o reformu 1968: analysa jeho teorie a praxe (Cologne, 1975). In Czechoslovakia, after 1969, works have appeared criticising the 1968 policy and its ideological justifications.Google Scholar
  10. 11.
    See the discussion of national relationships and their repercussions in the work of Viktor Pavlenda: Ekonomicke zaklady socialistickeho riesenia narodnostnje otazki w, Ceskoslovensku (Bratislava, 1968).Google Scholar
  11. 14.
    János Kornai, ‘The Hungarian Reform Process: Visions, Hopes and Reality’, Journal of Economic Literature, XXIV, no. 4, 1986, pp. 1687–1737.Google Scholar
  12. 15.
    Ibid., p. 1724.Google Scholar
  13. 16.
    Ibid., p. 1728.Google Scholar
  14. 17.
    Ibid., p. 1731.Google Scholar
  15. 18.
    Ibid., p. 1733.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Stanislaw Gomulka, Yong-Chool Ha and Cae-One Kim 1989

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  • Jerzy J. Wiatr

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