Networks, Commercial and Academic

  • Olive Checkland


Once the Japanese had resolved to make contact with the West they showed themselves skilled at associating with those who, because of their personal and professional status, were able to offer advice and effect useful introductions. In both the commercial and the academic worlds the Japanese in Britain quickly obtained important and influential contacts.1 As customers they commanded deferential attention. As students their hard work and respectful approach brought them access to distinguished scholars.


Japanese Government Japanese Firm British Scholar Academic World Japanese Student 
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Notes and References

  1. 5.
    See M. M. Matheson, Memorials of Hugh M. Matheson, 1889.Google Scholar
  2. 17.
    See The Engineer, ‘Modern Japan’, no. 9, ‘The Representatives of foreign engineering firms’ (17 September 1897) where it is stated that ‘Government work … is nearly all in the hands of a small clique of wealthy Japanese merchants’ (p. 267). See also Anon., The 100 Year History of Mitsui & Co. Ltd. (Tokyo, 1977) p. 32.Google Scholar
  3. 22.
    The Imperial government of Japan appointed Honorary Consuls in Liverpool (1 August 1889) and Glasgow (25 May 1889) ‘inconsequence of the increasing importance of the commercial relations between Japan and Britain’. See Kakkoku-chuzai-Teikoku-Meiyoryoji-ninmenkankei-Satsussen (miscellaneous papers relating to appointments and dismissals of honorary consuls in various countries) — Glasgow File, M2-1-0, 14–30, Diplomatic Archives, Tokyo. There was also for a time an Honorary Consul for Japan in Middlesbrough. See H. Matsu, ‘The Diplomatic and Consular Service of Japan’, JSL, vol. VII, 1907, p. 448.Google Scholar
  4. 26.
    See Ward’s Directory of Darlington … Middlesbrough, Newcastle, 1899, p. 611 andGoogle Scholar
  5. Kelly’s Directory of Middlesbrough, 1887, p. 31.Google Scholar
  6. 27.
    James Lord Bowes (1834–99) whose hobby was to collect Japanese art and artefacts. He became known as ‘Japanese Bowes’. G. A. Audsley and J. L. Bowes published books illustrating a high quality collection. This was dispersed shortly after his death, being sold at auction by Branch and Lecte of Liverpool in May 1901. The sale raised about £10000; for further information, B Guinness Orchard, Liverpools Legion of Honour, 1893, privately printed (copy in the University Library, Liverpool); ‘An interview with “Japanese Bowes”’, Pall Mall Gazette, 1889; and Baedeker, Great Britain for Travellers. My thanks to Mrs Sylvia Lewis, Honorary Secretary of the Gateacre Society, Liverpool.Google Scholar
  7. 50.
    W. J. M. Rankine, Manual of Applied Mechanics, [1858], pp. 8–10.Google Scholar
  8. 56.
    See A. R. Buchan (ed.) A Goodly Heritage: A Hundred Years of Civil Engineering at Strathclyde University, 1887–1987 (Glasgow, 1987).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Olive Checkland 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olive Checkland
    • 1
  1. 1.University of GlasgowUK

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