Amblyopia in Humans and Clinical Relevance of Animal Models

  • Gunter K. von Noorden
Part of the Wenner-Gren Center International Symposium Series book series (WGS)


Amblyopia means literally “dullness of vision” and is defined as subnormal visual acuity in one or both eyes which on physical examination appear normal. This acuity deficit cannot be improved with corrective spectacles but, if treated early in life by occlusion of the fellow eye, is partially or completely reversible. Amblyopia occurs in 2–2.5% of the population and develops only during childhood; patients older than eight years are resistant to amblyopiogenic conditions. There are three clinical conditions that cause amblyopia: strabismus, anisometropia and form vision deprivation.


Lateral Geniculate Nucleus Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus Cercopithecus Aethiops Anisometropic Amblyopia Abnormal Visual Field 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Boothe, R.G., Dobson, V., and Teller, D.Y. (1985). Postnatal development of vision in human and nonhuman primates. Annu. Rev. Neurosci., 8, 495–545.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Eggers, H.M., Boothe, R.G. (1987). Naturally occurring esotropia in macaques. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (suppl) 28, 103.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Garey, L. (1987). Normal anatomic development of the primate primary visual pathway. Wenner Gren Center Symposium Strabismus and Amblyopia — Experimental Basis for Advances in Clinical Management, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Guillery, R.W., Hickey, T.L., Kaas, J.H., Fellman, D.J., de Bruyn, E.J., Sparks, D.L. (1984). Abnormal visual pathways in the brain of an albino green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops). J. Comp. Neurol., 226, 165–183.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kaas, J.H., Guillery, R.W. (1974). The transfer of abnormal visual field representatives from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus to the visual cortex in Siamese cats. Brain Res., 59, 61–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kiorpes, L., Boothe, R.G., Carlson, M.R., Alfi, D. (1985). Frequency of naturally occurring strabismus in monkeys. J. Pediatr. Ophthalmol. Strabismus, 22, 60–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    von Noorden, G.K. (1985). Amblyopia: a multidisciplinary approach. (Proctor Lecture) Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 26, 52–64.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    von Noorden, G.K., Crawford, M.L.J, and Levacy, R.A. (1983). The lateral geniculate nucleus in human anisometropic amblyopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 24, 788–790.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Witkop, C.J., Jay, B., Creel, D., Guillery, R.W. (1982). Optic and otic neurologic abnormalities in oculocutaneous and ocular albinism In Genetics in Ophthalmology (eds. E. Cotlier and E. Berman). Alan R. Liss, 299–318.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Wenner-Gren Center 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gunter K. von Noorden

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations