EURATOM Nuclear Safeguards and the International Debate over Nuclear Export Controls and Physical Security

  • Darryl A. Howlett
Part of the Southampton Studies in International Policy book series (SSIP)


By the 1970s the nuclear trade rivalries noted by Walker and Lonn-roth between the United States and the West European nuclear suppliers like France and West Germany, had become well entrenched. Whereas in the 1950s and 1960s the United States had dominated the nuclear export markets, by the 1970s this hegemony had come under severe challenge by other nuclear suppliers, notably from the two West European supplier countries already mentioned plus Japan.1 The erosion of United States influence led to a structural change in the global nuclear industry. As a result of this structural change, the United States was no longer in a position to rely on unilateral influence alone to shape global nuclear export policies, especially those of the West European suppliers.


Member State Nuclear Export Nuclear Transfer Nuclear Material Physical Protection 
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  1. 2.
    M. J. Brenner, Nuclear Power and Non-Proliferation: The Remaking of U.S. Policy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), p. 64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    See B. Goldschmidt, ‘A Historical Survey of Non-Proliferation Policies’, International Security, Summer (1977).Google Scholar
  3. 9.
    For an informative discussion of successive United States administration non-proliferation and nuclear export policies, see L. Scheinman and J. Pilat, Toward A More Reliable Supply: U.S. Nuclear Exports and Non-Proliferation Policy, LA-UR-86-311, Los Alamos, January 1986.Google Scholar
  4. 10.
    G. Hildenbrand, ‘A German Reaction to U.S. Nonproliferation Policy’, International Security, Fall (1978), p. 53.Google Scholar
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    See P. Lellouche, ‘Breaking the Rules without quite Stopping the Bomb’, International Organization, 35, 1, Winter (1981), p. 43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    See F. Williams, ‘The United States Congress and Nonproliferation’, International Security, Fall (1978), pp. 45–50.Google Scholar
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    For text, see Council on Foreign Relations in cooperation with the Centre For European Policy Studies (CEPS), Blocking The Spread Of Nuclear Weapons (New York: 1985), Appendix F, pp. 130–42.Google Scholar
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    For a more detailed analysis of the issues raised in this context, see P. Leventhal and Y. Alexander (eds), Preventing Nuclear Terrorism (Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1987).Google Scholar

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© Darryl A. Howlett 1990

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  • Darryl A. Howlett

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