The State and the Kolkhoz
In 1929–30, much closer central control was established over agricultural production; and in the main grain-surplus regions most agricultural land and a large minority of peasant households were collectivised. Simultaneously several hundred thousand ‘kulak’ households were expropriated. The Soviet leaders carried out this ‘revolution from above’ with such violence and haste because they were convinced that it would provide the solution to the crisis in agricultural marketings which had developed since 1927, and was becoming more acute as they pressed forward and enlarged their industrialisation programme. They were confident that the consolidation of the planned state collections, and the replacement of individual peasant farms by kolkhozy, would immediately increase food supplies for the urban population, agricultural raw materials for industry, and agricultural exports generally.
KeywordsParty Leader Industrial Good Peasant Agriculture Collective Farmer Agricultural Cooperative
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