The career development of the elite described in this study took place within a framework of weakening constraints on the upward social mobility of Africans in South Africa. These constraints include poverty, a low level of exposure to Western achievement-orientated values, limited educational opportunities and institutionalized racial discrimination. The effect of these constraints and the extent to which they have weakened over time is evident from Tables 3.1 and 3.2.


Migrant Worker Upward Mobility African Community Modern Sector Mission School 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes and References

  1. 1.
    For example, Saudi Arabia (Wenner, 1975:177) and Syria (Van Dusen, 1975:140).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Africa: for example, Hopkins (1971:74) in respect of Tanzania, and Lloyd (1966) of Tropical Africa; Latin America: for example, Smith (1979:199), Lipset and Solari (1967) and DcDonough (1981:73); Western societies: for example, Porter (1965) in respect of Canada, Higley et al. (1976) in respect of Norway, Mills (1979:279) in respect of the United States, Higley, Deacon and Smart (1979:84) in respect of Australia, and Van der Merwe et al. (1974:84) in respect of White South Africa; and the Middle East: for example, Abdel-Malek (1968:174) and Dekmejian (1971:184) in respect of Egypt, Zonis (1975:200) in respect of Iran, and Frey (1965:50) in respect of Turkey; as well as Russia: for example, Stewart (1968:142).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    See Vallier (1967).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zartman (1980:3).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    See Beteille (1967).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brandel-Syrier (1978:146–7).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    See Van der Merwe et al. (1974:24–5), Abu-Lughod (1967:47), Ratinoff (1967) and Mills (1979:279).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    See Van der Merwe et al. (1974:85), Mills (1979:9), Higley, Deacon and Smart (1979:65), Lukhero (1966), Plotnicov (1970:278), Goldthorpe (1955), Wallerstein (1965), Hopkins (1971:70), Manwaring (1978) and Bottomore (1967).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    See Goldthorpe (1984:96).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cf. Cilliers (1986a).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    See Giliomee and Schlemmer (1985:1).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    See RSA, President’s Council (1985:148).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    See Cilliers (1986b).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    See South African Institute of Race Relations (1985:757–802).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    See Market Research Africa (1986).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© K.L. Dreyer 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lynette Dreyer

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations