‘Peaceful Coexistence’ and the Sino-Soviet Split

  • Ronald C. Keith


One of the most important issues leading up to the public clash between the Soviet Union and China related to conflicting interpretations of ‘peaceful coexistence’. Zhou Enlai’s diplomacy of the ‘five principles of peaceful coexistence’ was predicated in the Geneva-Bandung strategy to avert US penetration of Asian politics and to establish a stable regional environment conducive to Chinese economic development.


Socialist Country Chinese Leadership Great Leap National Equality Peaceful Coexistence 
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Notes and References

  1. 3.
    See Alvin Z. Rubenstein (ed.) The Foreign Policy of the Soviet Union (New York: Random House, 1972), p. 72.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    See R. Judson Mitchell’s explanation of the ‘correlation of forces’ in Ideology of a Superpower (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1982) pp. 11–14.Google Scholar
  3. 5.
    Zhou Enlai, On the Present International Situation, Chinese Foreign Policy and the Liberation of Taiwan (Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1956) pp. 3Google Scholar
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    Stuart R. Schram (ed.) Mao Tse-tung Unrehearsed (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1974) p. 191.Google Scholar
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    For example, see Chou Keng-sheng, ‘The Principle of Peaceful Coexistence from the Viewpoint of International Law’, in Jerome Cohen and Hungdah Chiu (eds) People’s China and International Law vol. I (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1974) p. 127.Google Scholar
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    As cited in Dick Wilson, Zhou Enlai: A Biography (New York: Viking Penguin, 1984) p. 211.Google Scholar
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    See the analysis of the Chinese perception of this level of threat in Melvin Gurtov and Byong-Moo Hwang, China Under Threat. The Politics of Strategy and Diplomacy (Baltimore & London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980) pp. 76–84.Google Scholar
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    Donald Zagoria, The Sino-Soviet Conflict 1956–61 (New York: Atheneum, 1967) p. 207Google Scholar
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    Ronald C. Keith (ed.) Energy, Security and Economic Development in East Asia (London & Sydney: Croom Helm Ltd, 1986) p. 23.Google Scholar
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    Ibid., p. 24. Also see coverage of Zhou’s speech in Peter S.H. Tang, Twenty-Second Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Moscow-Tirana-Peking Relations (Washington: Research Institute on the Sino-Soviet Bloc, 1962) p. 77.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ronald C. Keith 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald C. Keith
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CalgaryCanada

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