Advertisement

The Warsaw Pact

  • R. T. Maddock

Abstract

The Warsaw Pact, the Eastern bloc counterpart to NATO, was formed in 1955, not so much as a military response to that organisation, which after all had been in existence since 1949, but to the incorporation of West Germany into the Western alliance system.1 It was from the beginning as much political as military in conception2 though its ultimate rationale necessarily influenced the structural relationship between the members.

Keywords

Bargaining Power Military Expenditure World Price World Prex Warsaw Pact 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes and References

  1. 1.
    D. Nelson, Alliance Behaviour in the Warsaw Pact (Boulder: Westview Press, 1986) p. 5.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Johnson, ‘The Warsaw Pact: Soviet Military policy in Eastern Europe’, in S. Terry (ed), Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe (London: Yale University Press, 1984) p. 259.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Ericson, ‘Military Management: Modernizations within the Warsaw Pact’, in R. Clawson and L. Kaplan (eds), The Warsaw Pact: Political Purpose and Military Means (Washington: Scholarly Resources, 1984) p. 217.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Alton et al, ‘East European Defence Expenditures 1965–82’, in East European Economics: Slow Growth in the 1980s vol. 1, Economic Performance and Policy. Selected Papers submitted to the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Washington DC, 1985, p. 480.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. Alton et al, ‘Defense Expenditures in Eastern Europe 1965–76’, in East European Economies Post Helsinki, A Compendium of Papers submitted to the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Washington DC, 1977, p. 284.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Checinski, ‘Warsaw Pact-CMEA Military Economic Trends’, Problems of Communism, vol. XXXV, March–April 1987, p. 16.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. Clements, ‘The Cost of Defense in the Non-Soviet Warsaw Pact: A Historical Perspective’, East European Economies: Slow Growth 1985, op. cit., p. 452.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    V. Bunce, ‘The Empire Strikes Back. The Evolution of the Eastern Block from a Soviet Asset to a Soviet Liability’, International Organization, vol. 39, 1985, p. 26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    W. Reisinger, ‘East European Military Expenditure in the 1970s’, International Organization, vol. 37, no. 1, 1983, p. 143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. Nelson, op. cit., 1986, pp. 74–79.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Checinski, op. cit., 1987, p. 15.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    I. Volgyes, ‘Troubled Friendship or Mutual Dependence. Eastern Europe and the USSR in the Gorbachev Era’, Orbis, vol. 30, 1986, p. 350.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    T. Alton, op.cit., 1985, p. 492.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    T. Clement, op. cit., 1985, p. 474.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Bialer, ‘Soviet Foreign Policy: Sources, Perception, Trends’, in S Bialer (ed), The Domestic Context of Soviet Foreign Policy, (Boulder: Westview Press, 1981) p. 432.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Bialer and J. Afferica, ‘Andropov’s Burden: Socialist Stagnation and Communist Encirclement’, Adelphi Papers, no. 189, 1984, p. 18.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Mackintosh, ‘Military Considerations in Soviet-East-European Relations’, in K. Dawisha and P. Hanson (eds), Soviet-East European Dilemmas: Coercion, Competition and Consent (London: Heinemann, 1981) p. 147.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. Cutler et al, ‘The Political Economy of East South Military Transfers’, International Studies Quarterly, vol. 31, no. 3, 1987, p. 283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
    T. Snitch, ‘East European Involvement in Worlds Arms Market: US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency’, World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers, Washington DC, 1983.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    C. Rice, ‘Defence Burden Sharing’, in D. Holloway and J. Sharpe (eds), The Warsaw Pact: Alliance in Transition (London: Macmillan, 1984) p. 70.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Checinski, op. cit., 1987, p. 16.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    R. Campbell, ‘Management Spillovers from Soviet Space and Military Programmes’, Soviet Studies, vol. 23, no. 4, 1971–72.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    L. Whetton and J. Waddel, ‘Motor vehicle standardisation in the Warsaw Pact. Problems and Limitations’, RUSI: The Journal of the Royal United Services Institute for Defence Studies, vol. 124, no. 1, 1979, p. 55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    K. Hartley, NATO Arms Cooperation: A Study in Economics and Politics, (London: Allen and Unwin, 1983) p. 67.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. Callaghan, ‘A Common Market for Atlantic Defence’, Survival, vol. XVII, no. 3, March–June 1975, p. 130.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Ericson, op. cit., 1984, p. 222.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    L. Whetton and J. Waddell, op. cit., 1979, p. 58.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Checinski, op. cit., 1987, p. 16.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. Thee, Military Technology, Military Strategy and the Arms Race (London: Croom Helm, 1986) p. 73.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. Ericson, ‘The Warsaw Pact — The Shape of Things To Come?’ in K. Dawisha and P. Hanson (ed), op. cit., 1981, p. 167.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    M. Checinski, op. cit., 1987, p. 28.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    The following section draws on M. Checinski op. cit., 1987.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    R. Cutler et al, op. cit., 1987, p. 294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    F. Holzman, International Trade Under Communism: Politics and Economics, (London: Macmillan, 1976) p. 74.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    P. Marer. ‘Has Eastern Europe Become a Liability to the Soviet Union: The Economic Aspect’, in C. Gati (ed), The International Politics of Eastern Europe (New York: Praeger, 1977) p. 64.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    F. Holzman, op. cit., 1976, p. 64.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    V. Bunce, op. cit., 1985, p. 5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. Campbell, ‘Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe: An Overview’, in S. Terry, op. cit., 1984, p. 18.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ibid., p. 13.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    V. Bunce, op. cit., 1985, p. 12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    P. Marer, op. cit., 1977, pp. 65–69.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    E. Hewett, ‘Soviet Economic Relations with CMEA Countries’, The Soviet Economy After Brezhnev, NATO Colloquium, Brussels 1984, p. 241.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    P. Summerscale, ‘Is Eastern Europe a Liability to the USSR’, International Affairs, vol. 57, no. 4, 1981, p. 588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    J. Kramer, ‘Soviet-CMEA Energy Ties’, Problems of Communism, July–August, vol. XXXIV, no. 4, 1985, p. 34.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    M. Lavigne, ‘The Soviet Union outside COMECON’, Soviet Studies, vol. XXV, no. 2, 1983, p. 140.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ibid., p. 139.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    J. Vanous, ‘East European Economic Slowdown’, Problems of Communism, July–August, vol. XXXI, no. 4, 1982, p. 8.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    J. Zoeter, ‘USSR Hard Currency Trade and Payments’, Joint Economic Committee, op. cit., 1982, p. 490.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    E. Hewett, op. cit., 1984, p. 247.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    P. Marer, op. cit., 1977, p. 23.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    V. Bunce, op. cit., 1985, p. 20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    J. Brabant, ‘The USSR and Socialist Economic Integration’, Soviet Studies, vol. XXXVI, no. 1, 1984, p. 130.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    F. Pitzner-Jorgensen. ‘Soviet Economic Cooperation with CMEA Countries — A Breakthrough for Industrial Cooperation?’ The Soviet Economy: A New Course? NATO Colloquium, Brussels, 1987, p. 263.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    M. Marrese and J. Vanous, ‘Unconventional Gains from Trade’, Journal of Comparative Economics, vol. 7, 1983, p. 385.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    I. Neumann, ‘Soviet Foreign Policy Towards Her European Allies: Interest and Instruments’, Cooperation and Conflict, vol. XXIII, no. 4, 1988, p. 217.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    D. Jones. ‘The Soviet Defence Burden Through the Prism of History’, in C. Jacobsen (ed), The Soviet Defence Enigma: Estimating Costs and Burdens (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    M. Brzezinski, ‘The Soviet Union: Her Aims, Problems and Challenges to the West’, Adelphi Papers, no. 189, 1984, p. 3.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    I. Neumann, op. cit., 1988, p. 227.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    E. Goldstein, ‘Soviet Economic Assistance to Poland’, Joint Economic Committee, op. cit., 1985, part 2, p. 567.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    D. Nelson, op. cit., 1987, p. 109.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    M. Checinski, op. cit., 1987, p. 28.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© R. T. Maddock 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. T. Maddock
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of International PoliticsThe University College of WalesAberystwythUK

Personalised recommendations