Mortality Statistics

  • Michael Alderson


Civil (or vital) registration refers to the process by which facts regarding individual civil or vital events are recorded by some governmental agency as official records. Vital events may be defined as live births, deaths, stillbirths, marriages, divorces and adoptions. The records serve two purposes: (1) individual records establish a person’s civil status and the facts on which it is based, (2) the information on the registration records form the data for vital statistics, which are the computed birth rates, marriage rates, general death rates and other indices showing changes in population size and composition.


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2.4 Bibliography 2.4.1 Further Reading

  1. A general and extensive guide to the handling of mortality statistics was provided by WHO (1977a). This covers sources and collection of the basic data, but concentrates upon analysis; there are chapters on measures of mortality, life tables, childhood mortality, analysis over time, differential mortality and problems with various causes of death.Google Scholar
  2. Other reviews of the uses of mortality statistics are: Angrist (1958), Wagner and Newcomb (1970), Alderson (1974), Adelstein (1978), Kinlen (1980) and Makannah (1984).Google Scholar

2.4.2 Validity of Cause of Death and Associated Items

  1. An indication of the concern about the limitations of mortality statistics was provided in a report by UN (1963). This proposed that data on cause of death might be usefully grouped into only five main categories: (1) infectious and parasitic diseases; (2) cancer; (3) cardiovascular disease and bronchitis over the age of 5; (4) violence; (5) other causes. Use of such broad categories can be justified in an attempt to avoid the difficulty with finer subgrouping where there has been a change in diagnostic fashion, diagnostic accuracy, terminology and transfer between categories for other reasons. However, aggregation to this extent may conceal very different trends for various specific diseases; it will also combine conditions with quite different aetiologies.Google Scholar
  2. A joint United Nations/WHO meeting (WHO, 1970a) pointed out that at that time only about 34 per cent of the world’s population was covered by routine mortality statistics. It stressed the importance of extending this coverage and the need to build in some routine evaluation to existing systems. The meeting suggested that it was important to check the completeness and the accuracy of the non-diagnostic and the diagnostic data.Google Scholar Comparison of Clinical History with Death Certificate

  1. In addition to the studies reviewed in the text, the following warrant consideration: Dorn and Cutler (1958)—deaths from cancer in the US; Schwartz (1977)—715 deaths in Honolulu suggested an overall error of 20 per cent in death certificates; Clarke and Whitfield (1978)—in 191 deaths of persons under the age of 50 in Great Britain, there was a major discrepancy in 20.4 per cent.Google Scholar Comparison of Autopsy with Clinical Diagnosis

  1. Swartout (1934), Swartout and Webster (1940), Pohlen and Emerson (1943), James et al. (1955), Munck (1952), Gruver and Freis (1957).Google Scholar
  2. Rigdon and Kirchoff (1963)—100 autopsies and 194 deaths from cancer in two US hospitals.Google Scholar
  3. Justin-Besancon et al. (1963)—1000 consecutive autopsies in France in 1958–61.Google Scholar
  4. Howell (1966)—50 deaths in persons over the age of 80.Google Scholar
  5. Jablon et al. (1966)—follow-up of atomic bomb survivors, with 1215 autopsies in 1950–62. Varying discrepancy, depending on cause of death.Google Scholar
  6. Wilson (1966)—265 deaths in London; 7 per cent of diagnoses totally wrong.Google Scholar
  7. Holler and de Morgan (1970)—212 deaths in US; 8 per cent had major discrepancy.Google Scholar
  8. Rossman et al. (1974)—250 consecutive autopsies in a Jewish hospital in New York.Google Scholar
  9. Marshall (1970)—1000 coroners’ autopsies in Northern Ireland; 11 per cent showed major errors.Google Scholar
  10. Abramson et al. (1971)—476 deaths in Israel showed marked limitations in reporting of cardiovascular disease, peptic ulcer and liver cirrhosis.Google Scholar
  11. Britton (1974a,b)—384 autopsies indicated errors in 30 per cent of diagnosis. Fewer errors occurred under the age of 70, and malignant disease was seldom incorrect.Google Scholar
  12. Gwynne (1976)—534 deaths in Dunedin in 1971–73 showed errors in 57.5 per cent.Google Scholar
  13. Burrows (1975)—252 adult deaths indicated errors in 22 per cent.Google Scholar
  14. Virkkunen et al. (1975)—600 medicolegal deaths in Helsinki indicated errors in 29.5 per cent.Google Scholar
  15. Green and Donald (1976)—248 deaths in women under 50 in an AustralianGoogle Scholar
  16. hospital in 1969–73. Comparison with death certificates for another group is difficult to interpret.Google Scholar
  17. Hartveit (1977)—742 deaths in Bergen in 1975 indicated errors in 19 per cent.Google Scholar
  18. Engel et al. (1980)—257 deaths in an Atlanta hospital in 1970 showed discrepancies in 11 per cent.Google Scholar
  19. Cameron et al. (1980)—154 autopsies in Edinburgh in 1978 confirmed the diagnosis in 85 per cent.Google Scholar
  20. Clarke and Whitfield (1982)—471 dying in Great Britain in 1978–79; 7.0 per cent had no clear clinical diagnosis and there were major discrepancies in 4.2 per cent.Google Scholar
  21. Mercer and Talbot (1985)—400 hospital deaths in Leicester in 1982–84; autopsy confirmed the clinical diagnosis in only 46.7 per cent.Google Scholar
  22. Kircher et al. (1985)—272 deaths in Connecticut in 1980 indicated major disagreement in 29 per cent.Google Scholar Specific Causes of Death

  1. Alderson (1981a) has reviewed the literature on validity of mortality statistics and the following indicates those publications that are relevant to specific causes of death. This bibliography is ordered as the ICD.Google Scholar

Infectious and Parasitic Disease

  1. Cholera Stocks (1950)Google Scholar
  2. Diphtheria WHO (1951b)Google Scholar
  3. Influenza Collins and Lehman (1953)Google Scholar
  4. Malaria WHO (1951c)Google Scholar
  5. Measles WHO (1951d)Google Scholar
  6. Meningococcal meningitis Lambert (1973), Goldacre (1977)Google Scholar
  7. Scarlet fever WHO (1954a)Google Scholar
  8. Syphilis Nicoli and Bellows (1934), Hare (1972), Martin (1972)Google Scholar
  9. Tuberculosis Ash (1915), Springett (1950, 1971), Horwitz and Palmer (1954), Khowri (1971)Google Scholar
  10. Typhus WHO(1951e)Google Scholar
  11. Typhoid and paratyphoid WHO (1951f)Google Scholar
  12. Whooping cough WHO (1951g)Google Scholar


  1. General papers include: Greenwood and Wood (1914), MacDonald (1938), WHO (1952a, 1955a), Dorn and Cutler (1958), Waaler and Grimsetvedt (1958), Barclay and Phillips (1962), Haenszel et al. (1962), Lombard et al. (1962), Beadenkopf et al. (1963), Hastbacka and Saxen (1963), Gwynne (1965), Steinitz and Costin (1971), Bauer and Robbins (1972), Lehtonen and Saxen (1972),Google Scholar
  2. Lilienfeld et al (1972), Rosenblatt et al. (1973), Erlich et al. (1975), Steer et al (1976), Knight (1977), Murphy (1977), Engel et al. (1980), Percy et al (1981) and Nelson et al. (1987).Google Scholar
  3. Colorectal cancer Vellacott and Ferro (1984)Google Scholar
  4. Lung cancer Kennaway (1936), WHO (1952c), Registrar General (1957a), Gilliam (1955), McKenzie (1956), Bonser and Thomas (1959), Newhouse and Wagner (1969), Barchielli and Geddes (1986)Google Scholar
  5. Mesothelioma Lilienfeld and Gunderson (1986)Google Scholar
  6. Bone cancer McKenzie et al. (1961)Google Scholar
  7. Breast cancer Brinkley et al. (1984)Google Scholar
  8. Uterus cancer Murphy (1967), Weiss (1978), Alderson and Donnan (1978)Google Scholar
  9. Hodgkin’s diseaseWHO (1955b)Google Scholar

Endocrine, Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases

  1. Addison’s disease Mason et al. (1968)Google Scholar
  2. Diabetes WHO (1955c), Lombard and Joslin (1958), Westlund (1966), Trowell (1974), Warren and Corfield (1973), Tokuhata et al. (1975), Jarrett and Colwell (1982), O’Sullivan and Mahon (1982), Fuller (1985), Fuller et al. (1983) Thyroid diseaseGreenwald (1965, 1967, 1968, 1970, 1973)Google Scholar

Diseases of the Nervous System

  1. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosisHoffman and Brody (1971)Google Scholar
  2. Epilepsy WHO(1955d)Google Scholar
  3. Multiple sclerosis Kurland and Moriyama (1951), Acheson (1972), Agranoff and Goldberg (1974), O’Malley et al (1987)Google Scholar
  4. Parkinson’s disease Brown and Knox (1972), Duvoisin and Yahr (1872)Google Scholar
  5. Alzheimer’s disease Fox et al (1985)Google Scholar

Circulatory System

  1. There is a very extensive body of literature on various aspects of the validity of mortality statistics for cardiovascular disease. The following notes list method studies first, and then those dealing with particular diagnoses within the broad category of cardiovascular disease.Google Scholar
  2. DiagnosisWoolsey and Moriyama (1948), Moriyama et al (1966), Stocks (1969), Beral (1976), Guberan (1979)Google Scholar
  3. Certification Saver and Enterline (1959), Robb-Smith (1967), Anderson and Le Riche (1970), Deutscher et al (1971), WHO, Regional Office for Europe (1973), Clayton et al (1977), McMichael (1979)Google Scholar
  4. Coding Benjamin (1968a), Stocks (1969)Google Scholar
  5. Classification Cooper et al. (1978)Google Scholar
  6. Comparison with clinical details Peterson (1974), Najem et al. (1975)Google Scholar
  7. Autopsy studies Jackson (1896), Worth et al. (1975)Google Scholar
  8. Rheumatic fever Quinn et al. (1970)Google Scholar
  9. Hypertension Lambert (1975)Google Scholar
  10. Ischaemic heart diseaseSpain et al. (1960), Beadenkopf et al. (1963), Skyring et al. (1963), Garcia-Palmieri et al. (1965), Kuller et al. (1966, 1967), Walford (1971), Penttilla and Ahonen (1975), Samuelson et al. (1979), Dobson et al. (1983), Gillum (1984), Mcllwaine et al. (1985), Stehbens (1987) Bacterial endocarditis Rose (1966)Google Scholar
  11. Cerebrovascular diseaseBronte-Stewart and Pickering (1959), Kagan et al. (1976), Kruger et al. (1967), Larsson (1967), Schoenberg and Powell (1968), Florey et al. (1969), Kuller et al. (1969), Acheson et al. (1973), WHO, Regional Office for Europe (1973), Corwin et al. (1982), Norris and Hachinski (1982), Peach (1985)Google Scholar
  12. Pulmonary embolism and DVT Gorham (1961), Teviotdale and Gwynne (1967), Modan et al. (1972), Rossman (1974), Dismuke and Vander Zwaag (1984)Google Scholar

Respiratory System

  1. Collins and Lehman (1953), Hewitt (1956), Office of Health Economics (1963), Markush (1968), Markush (1969)Google Scholar
  2. Asthma Inman and Adelstein (1969), British Thoracic Association (1984), Sears et al. (1986a)Google Scholar
  3. Chronic bronchitisAnderson (1968), Mitchell et al. (1971), Kelson and Heller (1983), Farebrother et al. (1985)Google Scholar

Diseases of the Digestive System

  1. Peptic ulcer Morris and Titmus (1944), Susser and Stein (1962), Benjamin (1968a), Meade et al. (1968), Kirata et al. (1983)Google Scholar
  2. Cirrhosis Hallen and Norden (1964), Duffy and Dean (1971), Donnan and White (1977), Svendsen and Mosbech (1977), Peterson et al. (1982), Adelstein and White (1976), Maxwell and Knapman (1985)Google Scholar
  3. Pancreatitis Trapnell and Duncan (1975)Google Scholar

Diseases of the Genito-urinary System

  1. Registrar General (1957b), Kessner and Florey (1967), Waters (1968a), Florey and Kessner (1968), Waters (1968b), Rosenheim (1968), Hamtoft and Mosbech (1968), Wright (1969), Hansen and Susser (1971), Ueda et al. (1976), Lancet (1973)Google Scholar
  2. Complications of Pregnancy, Childbirth and the PuerperiumGoogle Scholar
  3. WHO (1954b), Beral (1979), Smith et al (1984)Google Scholar

Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System

  1. Logan (1963), WHO, Regional Office for Europe (1972), Wood and Benn (1972), Lawrence et al (1961)Google Scholar
  2. Paget’s diseaseBarker and Gardner (1974)Google Scholar
  3. Rheumatoid arthritis Lindahl (1985)Google Scholar

Congenital Malformations

  1. Weatherall and Haskey (1976), Hook et al (1977), Cock et al (1982)Google Scholar
  2. Certain Causes of Perinatal MortalityGoogle Scholar
  3. Stowman (1947–8), Fedrick and Butler (1972), Clarke and Whitfield (1979), Gau (1977), Harter et al (1986), Clarke et al (1987)Google Scholar
  4. Sudden infant death Weiss et al (1973), Lancet (1975), Knowelden et al (1984), Arneil et al (1985)Google Scholar

Accidents, Poisoning and Violence

  1. Turkel (1955), Marshall (1970)Google Scholar
  2. Road accidents Norman (1962), WHO (1957), Chipman (1983)Google Scholar
  3. Home accidents Backett (1965)Google Scholar
  4. Fishing accidents Schilling (1966)Google Scholar
  5. Fractured femur Pemberton and Cust (1986)Google Scholar
  6. Hypothermia Adelstein (1973)Google Scholar
  7. Suicide Barraclough (1972, 1973), Barraclough et al (1976), Oliver and Hetzel (1973), Brooke and Atkinson (1974), Ross and Kreitman (1975), McCarthy and Walsh (1975), Walsh et al (1975), Nelson et al (1978), Warshaver and Monk (1978), Sainsbury (1983)Google Scholar
  8. Adverse medical events Scott (1986)Google Scholar
  9. Anaesthetics Lunn and Mushin (1982), Lunn et al (1983)Google Scholar Autopsy: General Issues

  1. A number of studies have commented upon various aspects of the use of autopsies, and the following authors have each contributed to consideration of this in relation to the validity of mortality statistics: Beadenkopf et al (1965), Journal of the American Medical Association (1965), Stehbens (1974), Waldron and Vickerstaff (1975), Gau (1977), Cameron et al (1977), Cameron (1983), McGoogan and Cameron (1978), Cameron et al (1980), Carter et al (1981), Busuttil et al (1983), Geller (1983), Alderson et al (1983).Google Scholar Certification

  1. Confidential certificate Nicoli and Bellows (1934)Google Scholar
  2. Perinatal deathsScott et al (1981), Mugford (1983), Gedalla and Alderson (1984), Scott (1984), Alderson et al (1985)Google Scholar Coding

  1. Wingrave et al (1981)Google Scholar Validity of other items

  1. NCHS (1969), Nelson et al (1987)Google Scholar

2.4.3 National Publications of Mortality Statistics by Cause Australia

  1. Causes of Death, Australia, 1981 Table 6: Mortality by cause [3-digit], age group [22], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Region; Infant deaths Source: Australian Bureau of Census Language: EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Bericht uber das gesundheitswesen in Ostereich 1984 Table 54: Mortality by cause [346], age group [27], sex [M,F,P*] Other statistics by cause include: Deaths by Cause and Province; Rates/100 000 Source: Bundesministerium fur Gesundheit und Umweltschutz; Ostereichischen Statistischen Zentralamt, Wien, 1985 Language: German * M = data available for males; F = data available for females; P = data available for persons.Google Scholar


  1. Statistique des causes de deces Numero 9 1978 Table I 3: Mortality by cause [3/4-digit], age group [22], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Detailed tables for infants, stillbirths, perinatal, non-residents and accidents Source: Institut National de Statistique, Ministere des Affaires Economiques, 1983 Language: FrenchGoogle Scholar


  1. Estatisticas de Mortalidade, 1980 Table 1: Mortality by cause [3-digit], age group [11], sex [M,F,P]. Other statistics by cause include: Locality Source: Centro de Documentacao de Ministerio da Saude, 1983 Language: PortugueseGoogle Scholar


  1. Vital Statistics, Vol. IV, Causes of Death 1984 Table 1: Mortality by cause [4-digit], age group [19], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Province Source: Statistics Canada, 1986 Language: English; FrenchGoogle Scholar


  1. CSSR, Zdravotnictvi, 1975 Table 3.17: Mortality by cause [33], age group [—], sex [—] Other statistics by cause include: Infant mortality; rates by region Source: Institute for Health Statistics, Prague and Bratislava Language: Czechoslovakian, English summaryGoogle Scholar


  1. Dodsarsagerne, 1982 Table 7: Mortality by cause [4-digit], age group [19], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Urbanisation; percentage in hospital; autopsy; medicolegal examination; county; rates Source: Sundhedsstyrelsen, 1984 Language: DanishGoogle Scholar


  1. Arsberetning, 1985 Table: Mortality by cause [20], age group [—], sex [—] Source: Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer to the Faroes Language: Danish, French, EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Kuolemansyyt, 1982 Table 1 : Mortality by cause [3-digit], age group [32], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Rates for localities; marital status; basis of diagnosis; stillbirth, perinatal, neonatal deaths by birth weight Source: Tilostokeskus, Helsinki, 1985 Language: Finnish, Swedish, EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Statistique des causes medicales de deces, Tome 1, Resultats France 1978 Table 11: Mortality by cause [4-digit], age group [21], sex (M,F] Other statistics by cause include: B list rates by sex and age; infant deaths; principal, intermediate and associated causes; deaths by month Source: Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Paris, 1982 Language: FrenchGoogle Scholar

German Federal Republic

  1. Todesursachen Reihe 4, Fachserie 12, 1984 Table 2: Mortality by cause [3/4-digit], age group [24], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Very limited—stillbirth, etc. Source: Heransgeber: Statistiches Bundesamt Weisbaden, 1985 Language: GermanGoogle Scholar


  1. Mouvement naturel de la population de la Grece en 1981 Table 30: Mortality by cause [66], age group [22], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Place of death; certification; urban/rural, etc.; stillbirths and infant deaths Source: Office National de Statistique de Grece, Athenes, 1984 Language: Greek; FrenchGoogle Scholar


  1. Annual Report of the Medical Officer of Health, 1986 Table 8.11: Mortality by cause [BTL*], age group [8], sex [M,F] Source: Board of Health, 1986 Language: EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Demografiai Evkonyv, 1983 Tables 7.3 and 7.4: Mortality by cause [3-digit], age group [21], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Perinatal and infant mortality; earning capacity, duration of marriage; place of death; certifier; accidents Source: Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal, Budapest, 1985 Language: Hungarian; English contents listGoogle Scholar


  1. Heilbrigdisskyrslur 1981–82 Table pp. 26–29: Mortality by cause [65], age group [22], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Cancer: 14 commonest causes Source: Landlaeknisembaettio, 1984 Language: Icelandic; English summaryGoogle Scholar


  1. Vital Statistics of India, 1980 Table 21: Mortality by cause [BTL], age group [—], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: These are for medically certified deaths, a small proportion of the total. Other tables give broad cause by locality for all deaths Source: Office of the Registrar General, 1983 Language: English * BTL = Basic Tabulation List.Google Scholar


  1. Annual Bulletin of Vital and Health Statistics, 1959–60 Table 9: Mortality by cause [B list], age group [11], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Infant mortality Source: Ministry of Health, 1963 Language: Arabic, EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Report on Vital Statistics, 1982 Table 19: Mortality by cause [3-digit], age group [22], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Locality; infant mortality; stillbirth, maternal age, parity, gestation Source: Central Statistics Office, Dublin, 1985 Language: EnglishGoogle Scholar

Isle of Man

  1. Chief Registrar’s Annual Report, 1985 Table 14: Mortality by cause [BTL], age group [17], sex [M,F] Source: General Registry, Isle of Man, 1986 Language: EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Causes of Death, 1981–82 Table 1 B: Mortality by cause [55], age group [22], sex [M,F,P] Other statistics by cause include: Religion; locality; urban/rural; month; hospital deaths Source: Central Bureau of Statistics, 1985 Language: Hebrew, EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Annuario di Statistiche Sanitarie, Vol XXVI, 1981 Table 8: Mortality by cause [3/4-digit], age group [25], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Stillbirths and infant mortality; region Source: Istituto Centrale di Statistica, Rome, 1985 Language: ItalianGoogle Scholar


  1. Demographic Statistics, 1979 Table 29: Mortality by cause [150], age group [—], sex [M,F,P] Source: Department of Statistics, 1980 Language: EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Vital Statistics, 1984, Vol 3 Table 1-1: Mortality by cause [3-digit], age group [25], sex [M,F,P] Other statistics by cause include: Month; locality; place of occurrence; occupational type of household; accident and violence; stillbirth, perinatal and infant deaths Source: Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1986 Language: Japanese, EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Report of the Medical Officer of Health, 1985 Table 1: Mortality by cause [BTL], age group [17], sex [M,F] Source: States of Jersey, 1986 Language: EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Statistical Yearbook, 1982 Table 127: Mortality by cause [8], age group [—], sex [—] Source: Seoul Metropolitan Government, 1982 Language: Korean, EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Vital Statistics (Births-Deaths) 1983 Table 28: Mortality by cause [3-digit], age group [22], sex [M,F,P] Other statistics by cause include: Nationality; stillbirth, infant, maternal; neoplasms; heart disease; accidents Source: Ministry of Public Health, 1985 Language: Arabic, EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Annuaire Statistique 1977 Table 4.1-6: Mortality by cause [B list], age group [—], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Suicide trends Source: Service Central de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 1977 Language: FrenchGoogle Scholar


  1. Mortality Statistics, 1985 Table: Mortality by cause [55], age group [19], sex [M,F] Source: Chief Medical Officer of Health, Malta Language: EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Annual Report of the Registrar General’s Department Table VI: Mortality by cause [150], age group [—], sex [M,F,P] Other statistics by cause include: Rates for commonest causes Source: Registrar General’s Department, 1981 Language: EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Annuario estadistico de los estados unidos Mexicanos, 1981 Table 3.2.6: Mortality by cause [17], age group [—], sex [—] Other statistics by cause include: Locality Source: Coordinacion General de los Servicios Nacionales de Estadistica, Geografia y Informatica, 1982 Language: SpanishGoogle Scholar


  1. Cause of Death Tables Table 1: Mortality by cause [3-digit], age group [17], sex [M,F] Source: Service des Statistiques et Etudes Economiques Language: FrenchGoogle Scholar


  1. Cause of Death Table Table 1: Mortality by cause [17], age group [—], sex [—] Source: Ministere de la Sante Language: FrenchGoogle Scholar


  1. Overledenen naar doodsoorzaak, leeftijd en geslacht in het jaar 1984, Serie Al Table (a): Mortality by cause [3-digit], age group [19], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Secondary causes and rates Source: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, 1985 Language: DutchGoogle Scholar

New Zealand

  1. Mortality and Demographic Data, 1983 Table 11: Mortality by cause [4-digit], age group [22], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Maori deaths; certifier and post-mortem; urban areas; violence; maternal, stillbirth and infant deaths Source: National Health Statistics Centre, 1985 Language: EnglishGoogle Scholar

Northern Ireland

  1. Annual Report of the Registrar General, 1983 Table 20: Mortality by cause [3-digit], age group [25], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Place of occurrence; district of residence; infant mortality by month Source: HMSO, Belfast, 1986 Language: EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Dodsarsaker, 1982 Table 3: Mortality by cause [3/4-digit], age group [20], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Infant mortality; rates (A list); counties, Oslo, (A list) Source: Statistisk Sentralbyra, 1983 Language: Norwegian; EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Situation Demografica—Estadisticas Vitales: 1982 Table 38: Mortality by cause [BTL], age group [22], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Many other analyses Source: Direcion de Estadisticas y Censo, 1985 Language: SpanishGoogle Scholar


  1. Statistical Yearbook, 1983 Table 9.7: Mortality by cause [10], age group [—], sex [—] Other statistics by cause include: Infant mortality; 26 notifiable diseases Source: National Economic and Development Authority, 1983 Language: EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Estatisicas da Saude, 1984 Table 54: Mortality by cause [BTL], age group [22], sex [M,F,P] Other statistics by cause include: Month; marital status; districts; uncertified; urban; infection by location and month; maternal; infant; occupation; stillbirth and perinatal Source: Instituto Nacional de Estatistica, 1985 Language: Portuguese; FrenchGoogle Scholar

San Marino

  1. Annual Statistics of San Marino, 1985 Table 3.1: Mortality by cause [56], age group [—], sex [P,F] Source: Ufficio Statale di Statistica, 1986 Language: Italian, EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Annual Report, Registrar General for Scotland, 1985 Table C 2.1: Mortality by cause [3/4-digit], age group [22], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include:Google Scholar
  2. Trend for selected cancers; locality; place of occurrence of accidents; following surgical procedure; stillbirth and infant deaths by locality and social class Source: HMSO, Edinburgh 1986 Language: EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Report of the Registration of Births and Deaths Tables 46, 47: Mortality by cause [57], age group [23], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Type of certification; ethnic group Source: Registrar General of Births and Deaths, 1983 Language: EnglishGoogle Scholar

South Africa

  1. Deaths: Whites, Coloureds, and Asians, 1983 Table 9: Mortality by cause [3-digit], age group [22], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Rates; nature of injury; occupation; infant deaths Source: Central Statistical Services, 1985 Language: Afrikaans, EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Movimiento natural de la Poblacion Espanola, 1978, Tome III, Defunciones segun la causa de muerte Table 1: Mortality by cause [4-digit], age group [22], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Month of death; occupation; infant and stillbirth; rates; locality Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, 1981 Language: SpanishGoogle Scholar

Sri Lanka

  1. Statistical Abstract of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka Table 246: Mortality by cause [150], age group [—], sex [—] Source: Department of Census and Statistics, 1978 Language: Sinhalese, EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Dodsorsaker, 1984 Table 2: Mortality by cause [4-digit] age group [23], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Rates; region; month; basis of certification Source: Statistika Centralbyran, 1986 Language: Swedish; EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Mouvement de la population en Suisse, 1984 Tables 64, 65: Mortality by cause [150], age group [22], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Month; locality; trend 1901-Source: Office Federal de la Statistique, Suisse, 1986 Language: German; FrenchGoogle Scholar


  1. Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of China, 1984 Table Supp. T2: Mortality by cause [3], age group [—], sex [—] Source: Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, 1984 Language: EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Statistical Yearbook, 1976–80 Table 31: Mortality by cause [10], age group [—], sex [—] Other statistics by cause include: Tuberculosis; accidents; malaria Source: National Statistical Office, 1984 Language: Thai, EnglishGoogle Scholar

Trinidad and Tobago

  1. Population and Vital Statistics Report, 1977 Table 65: Mortality by cause [150], age group [22], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Institutional deaths; place of residence; infant, maternal and violent deaths Source: Central Statistical Office, undated Language: EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Health Statistics Yearbook of Turkey, 1979–81 Table 6.3: Mortality by cause [50], age group [10], sex [M,F,P] Source: Ministry of Information and Statistics, 1983 Language: Turkish, EnglishGoogle Scholar

United States

  1. Vital Statistics of the United States, 1979, Vol II, Mortality, Part A Table 1-25: Mortality by cause [282], age group [25], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: State; maternal mortality; month; percentage autopsy; place of death; marital status; stillbirths and perinatal deaths; accidents Source: National Centre for Health Statistics, 1984 Language: EnglishGoogle Scholar


  1. Annuario de Epidemiologica y Estadistica Vital, 1980, Tome I Table 2: Mortality by cause [4-digit], age group [22], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Many other details Source: Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social, 1982 Language: SpanishGoogle Scholar


  1. Demografska Statistika, 1979 Table 4.5: Mortality by cause [47], age group [11], sex [M,F] Other statistics by cause include: Infant mortality; accidents Source: Saveyni Zavod Za Statistika, 1982 Language: Serbo-CroatianGoogle Scholar

2.4.4 Multiple Cause Coding England and Wales

  1. The importance of providing some material by MCC was well recognised by the pioneer efforts in England and Wales. Major additional coding and tabulating was undertaken from the early part of the twentieth century. The following list indicates the principal publications that stemmed from this work:Google Scholar
  2. 1911: Deaths coded for the first 19 rubrics of the ICD were double coded and tables provided by place of death, sex and age.Google Scholar
  3. 1912–20:The 1911 exercise was extended, but not formally published.Google Scholar
  4. 1921–30: A sample of deaths were multicoded (from 10 per cent to 100 per cent of deaths for any specific UCD). Extensive tabulations were provided, including UCD against main subsidiary causes.Google Scholar
  5. 1935: A limited analysis was prepared, with counts of the numbers of certificates with more than one cause.Google Scholar
  6. 1945: A limited analysis of a sample of only 8702 non-violent deaths.Google Scholar
  7. 1951: A 10 per cent sample of deaths were multiple cause coded.Google Scholar
  8. 1966–67:Tabulations were provided for a limited examination of MCC.Google Scholar

United States

  1. Equivalent publications for the US are: 1918: US Bureau of the Census. Mortality Statistics, 1918. Washington: USGPO, 1920.Google Scholar
  2. 1925: US Bureau of the Census. Mortality Statistics 1925, Part 1. Washington: USGPO, 1927.Google Scholar
  3. 1936: US Bureau of the Census. Deaths from Alcoholism, US 1936. US Vital Statistics, Special Reports, 1939, No. 59.Google Scholar
  4. 1940: US Department of Health Education and Welfare. Vital Statistics of the US 1940. Part 1. Washington: USGPO, 1943.Google Scholar
  5. 1955: US Department of Health Education and Welfare. Vital Statistics of the US 1955, Supplement. Washington: USGPO, 1965Google Scholar

Specific Causes of Death

  1. The following notes identify a number of studies of multiple cause coding which have discussed the application of this technique to specific causes of death. It does not cover the method issues, which are reviewed in subsection Many of these method studies provide some material on a variety of causes of death, using underlying cause and multiple cause analysis.Google Scholar


  1. Lancaster (1962), Jennings (1963), Fuller et al (1983)Google Scholar

Neurological Conditions—multiple sclerosis

  1. Kurtzke (1972), Malmgren et al (1983)Google Scholar

Cardiovascular Disease

  1. Weiner et al (1955)Google Scholar
  2. Coronary heart diseaseKrueger (1966)Google Scholar
  3. Hypertension Krueger (1966), Wing and Manton (1981)Google Scholar
  4. Cerebrovascular disease Krueger (1966), Kuller et al. (1968)Google Scholar

Respiratory Disease

  1. Markush (1968)Google Scholar
  2. Bronchitis Krueger (1966)Google Scholar
  3. Alimentary Disease—CirrhosisGoogle Scholar
  4. Speizer et al (1977)Google Scholar

Renal Disease

  1. Weiner et al (1955)Google Scholar

Stillbirth and Infant Deaths

  1. Macfarlane (1980)Google Scholar

Various Causes

  1. Westlund (1981)Google Scholar


  1. Cohen (1971)Google Scholar

Occupational Studies

  1. Wong et al (1978)Google Scholar

Method Study

  1. Manton et al (1980b)Google Scholar

2.4.5 Occupational Mortality

  1. The following notes list in alphabetical order those countries which have provided major publications on occupational mortality.Google Scholar


  1. Deaths aged 30–64 in 1968–78, for broad causes of death for nine occupational groups. Directly age-standardised results provided. McMichael and Hartshorne (1982).Google Scholar


  1. Ten per cent sample of the labour force in 1965–68 followed to 1973, resulting in 415 201 deaths. SMRs given for 13 sites of cancer for 12 occupational groups and 11 industrial groups. Howe and Lindsay (1983).Google Scholar


  1. Linkage of the 1970 census to deaths up to 1975 published, giving limited data by cause and occupation. Danmarks Statistiks (1979).Google Scholar

England and Wales

  1. Logan (1982) summarised the main results for 1885–1971 for cancer by occupation and social class.Google Scholar
  2. Deaths in 1979–83 at ages 20–74 analysed by sex, occupation and social class. Data for married women provided by their own occupation and that of their husbands. Registrar General (1986).Google Scholar


  1. Census data for 1970 linked to deaths in 1971–75 at ages 15–64. For males data presented for 72 occupations, with SMRs provided for main causes of death. Sauli (1979).Google Scholar


  1. A survey in 1954 provided information on the characteristics of a sample of males aged 30–69, and, for those who were married, of their wives. Deaths were traced up to 1974. Results were provided for 112 socioeconomic groups and seven broad causes of death. Desplanques (1976).Google Scholar


  1. The census for Turin in 1971 has been linked to the local death index, with tracing of those dying outside the area. No results are yet available. Costa, G., personal communication (1984).Google Scholar

New Zealand

  1. Deaths in 1974–78 have been analysed, using the 1976 census to provide denominator data. This was from a 10 per cent sample of the full census. Results were analysed for 3-digit categories of the ICD, by occupational order and social class. Using the world population standard, directly age-standardised rates were calculated. Pearce and Howard (1985, 1986).Google Scholar

Northern Ireland

  1. Deaths in 1960–62 have been analysed in relation to the 1961 census, with SMRs being calculated for males aged 15–64 for 127 occupation orders and four broad causes of death. Park (1965–6).Google Scholar


  1. The 1970 census was linked to deaths in 1970–73, and then to the 1960 census. The 25 000 deaths in males and 4500 deaths in females have been analysed by occupational group and cause of death. Haldorsen and Glattre (1976), Kristofersen (1979).Google Scholar


  1. The report for 1979–83 referred to under England and Wales included data for Scotland for the first time. Prior to this, decennial reports had been produced independently for Scotland by the Registrar General since 1891.Google Scholar


  1. The 1960 census of population was linked to deaths in 1961–70. A second exercise linked the 1970 census to deaths in 1971–80 (Statistika Centralbyran, 1981). A system has been developed to provide quick access to the linked files to answer ad hoc requests. (See Malker and Weiner, 1984.)Google Scholar

United States

  1. Limited results were provided by Britten (1934), with further detail for deaths in ten states in 1930 being provided by Whitney (1934). A subsequent study used deaths in males aged 20–64 in 1950 and the census estimates of population at risk. Detailed analyses were provided by occupation and industry, giving PMRs and SMRs (Guralnick, 1962, 1963a,b).Google Scholar
  2. Detailed results have been provided for deaths in Washington state in 1950–79 for males aged 20 and over. PMRs were published for 217 occupations and the main 3-digit categories of the ICD (Milham, 1983).Google Scholar

2.4.6 Life Tables

  1. Preston et al (1972): Forty-seven countries for twelve causes for 1861–1964. UN (1986c): Forty-three developing countries for two recent time periods for all-cause mortality by sex.Google Scholar

England and Wales

  1. This series has been traditionally known as the English Life Table. The following are the data periods, with the references to the later tables: ELT 1 (1841); ELT 2 (1838–4); ELT 3 (1838–54); ELT 4 (1871-80); ELT 5 (1881–90); ELT 6 (1891–1900); ELT 7 (1901–10); ELT 8 (1910–12); ELT 9 (1920–22); ELT 10 (1930–32); ELT 11 (1950–52: Registrar General, 1957c); ELT 12 (1960–62: Registrar General, 1968); ELT 13 (1970–72: OPCS, 1979b); ELT 14 (1980–82: OPCS, 1987b).Google Scholar

United States

  1. 1969–71: Greville (1975)Google Scholar


  1. UN (1986c)Google Scholar

2.4.7 Migrants

  1. This list indicates major studies that have reported the mortality of various migrant groups. It covers a number of general studies and then studies restricted to particular causes of death. The majority of these have dealt with various forms of malignant disease; they concentrate upon either one site of malignancy or a variety of forms of cancer. The cause-specific studies are listed within the various headings for the causes by country in which the migrants have been studied and, within this, the country of origin.Google Scholar

General Studies

  1. Japan Koreans in 1973–82: Ubukata et al. (1986)Google Scholar
  2. South Africa Immigrants’ mortality: Dean (1961)Google Scholar
  3. United States Migrants from Great Britain and Norway: Reid (1966), Rogot et al (1985)Google Scholar
  4. Foreign-born: Krueger and Moriyama (1967)Google Scholar
  5. Japanese: Gordon (1982)Google Scholar


  1. Australia Born in Poland (cancer): Staszewski et al. (1971) Born in Europe (gastro-intestinal cancer): McMichael et al. (1980)Google Scholar
  2. Brazil Born in Japan (gastric cancer): Prudente and Mirra (1961)Google Scholar
  3. England Born in Asia (cancer incidence): Donaldson and Clayton (1984)Google Scholar
  4. Hawaii Born in Japan (stomach cancer): Haenszel et al. (1972)Google Scholar
  5. Israel Born in US (cancer): Haenszel (1971) Immigrants (cancer): Halevi (1971)Google Scholar
  6. Japan Born in Korea (cancer): Oshima et al. (1982)Google Scholar
  7. Kenya Born in Asia (cancer): Chopra et al. (1975)Google Scholar
  8. Singapore Born in China (liver cancer): Shanmugaratnam and Tye (1970) Born in China (nasopharyngeal cancer): Shanmugaratnam and Tye (1970)Google Scholar
  9. South Africa Immigrants (lung cancer): Dean (1959)Google Scholar
  10. United States Born abroad (cancer): Mancuso and Coulter (1958), Haenszel (1961) Born in Hawaii and Philippines (cancer): Smith (1957a) Chinese (cancer): Smith (1956a), King and Haenszel (1973), King and Locke (1981), King et al. (1985) Indians (cancer): Smith (1957b) Japanese (cancer): Smith (1956b), Haenszel and Kurihara (1968), Buell (1973) Japanese first- and second-generation (cancer): Buell and Dunn (1965) Polish (cancer): Staszewski and Haenszel (1965) Mexico (lung cancer in women): Buechley et al. (1957)Google Scholar

Multiple Sclerosis

  1. Britain Born abroad: Dean et al. (1977) South Africa Born abroad: Dean (1967), Dean and Kurtze (1971)Google Scholar

Cardiovascular Disease

  1. Australia Born in British Isles: Stenhouse and McCall (1970)Google Scholar
  2. Israel Born in East: Kallner and Groen (1968)Google Scholar
  3. United States Foreign-born: Stamler et al. (1960)Google Scholar

2.4.8 Area Analyses

  1. The following lists indicate a number of major publications on geographic mortality. The first section indicates those major reviews that have been recently published. The next two sections cover atlases that have been published; these are somewhat dominated by the recent interest in mapping of cancer. The fourth section covers selected references of studies of specific causes of death.Google Scholar

2.4.8 Area Analyses Reviews of International Mortality

  1. Scandinavia in 1966–68:Bolander (1971)Google Scholar
  2. Europe, premature mortality Catford and Ford (1984)Google Scholar
  3. The geography of disease Doll (1984)Google Scholar
  4. World and regional pattern for seven broad causes by age and sex, in 1980 Hakulinen et al (1986)Google Scholar
  5. Global geocancerologyHowe (1986b)Google Scholar
  6. The geography of non-infectious diseaseHutt and Burkitt (1986)Google Scholar
  7. Review of international data Learmonth (1981)Google Scholar
  8. Arab countries Hammoud (1977)Google Scholar
  9. Caribbean countries McGlashan (1982)Google Scholar
  10. Western Europe van Poppel (1981)Google Scholar
  11. World health situation, 1973–77 (limited data for individual countries)WHO (1980a)Google Scholar

Individual Countries

  1. Belgium Kurnitzer et al. (1979)Google Scholar
  2. Chile Hayes (1983)Google Scholar
  3. France Grosclaude et al. (1978)Google Scholar
  4. Poland Wojtyniak and Krzyzanowski (1986)Google Scholar

General Review of Topic

  1. Howe (1986a)Google Scholar Atlases of General Mortality

  1. Canada Wigle and Mao (1980)Google Scholar
  2. Chile Haynes (1982)Google Scholar
  3. England and Wales Haviland (1875), Owen (1889), Howe (1970b), Gardner et al (1984a)Google Scholar
  4. Japan Shigematsu (1982)Google Scholar
  5. New Zealand Burman and Leiataua (1984)Google Scholar
  6. United States Mason et al (1981)Google Scholar Atlases of Cancer Mortality

  1. World maps Dunham and Bailar (1968)Google Scholar
  2. Belgium Ryckeboer et al (1983)Google Scholar
  3. Canada Ministry of Supply and Services (1980)Google Scholar
  4. China Editorial Committee in the People’s Republic of China (1979)Google Scholar
  5. England and Wales Stocks (1936, 1937, 1939), Gardner et al (1984b)Google Scholar
  6. France Rezvani et al (1986)Google Scholar
  7. Germany (FDR) Frentzel-Beyme et al (1979), Becker et al (1984) Italy Cislagi et al (1978)Google Scholar
  8. Japan Segi (1977)Google Scholar
  9. Netherlands Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (1980)Google Scholar
  10. New Zealand Burman (1982)Google Scholar
  11. Spain Lopez-Abente et al (1984)Google Scholar
  12. Switzerland Brooke (1976)Google Scholar
  13. Taiwan Chen et al (1979)Google Scholar
  14. United States Counties1950–69: Mason et al (1975) Non-whites: Mason et al (1975)Google Scholar Specific Causes of Death Infections

  1. World atlas of epidemic disease Rodenwaldt (1952)Google Scholar
  2. Cholera 20 countries in 1946: WHO (1948b)Google Scholar
  3. Viral respiratory disease International comparisons: WHO (1980b)Google Scholar


  1. 39 countries for 18 sites 1978-79: Kurihara et al (1984)Google Scholar
  2. Europe 1955–74 Campbell et al 1980Google Scholar
  3. Brazil Brumini (1982)Google Scholar
  4. Canada Statistics Canada (1977)Google Scholar
  5. China Li and Shiang (1980)Google Scholar
  6. France (urban) Picheral (1979)Google Scholar
  7. Poland Gadomska (1982)Google Scholar
  8. Shanghai 1963–77 Gao et al. (1981)Google Scholar
  9. United States Burbank (1971)Google Scholar
  10. USSR Serenko and Tserkovni (1974), Napalkov et al (1981, 1983)Google Scholar
  11. Specific sites Oesophagus: Day (1984) Stomach: Haenszel (1958) Prostate (45 countries): Tulinius (1977)Google Scholar

Neurological Disease

  1. 33 countries: Goldberg and Kurland (1962)Google Scholar
  2. Multiple sclerosisInternational data: Goldberg and Kurland (1962), Acheson (1972)Google Scholar

Cardiovascular Disease

  1. 24 countries in 1954: Puffer and Verhoestraete (1958)Google Scholar
  2. Europe Cairns Smith and Tunstall-Pedoe (1984)Google Scholar
  3. England and Wales Stocks (1969), Gardner et al (1969)Google Scholar
  4. Scotland (coronary heart disease)Crombie et al (1986)Google Scholar
  5. Cerebrovascular disease Japan: Netsky and Miyaji (1976) England and Wales 1970–72: Acheson and Sanderson (1978) International comparisons: WHO (1971a)Google Scholar

Respiratory Disease

  1. Chronic bronchitisEngland and Wales: Holland (1966)Google Scholar
  2. AsthmaNew Zealand and England: Sears et al (1986b)Google Scholar

Maternal Mortality

  1. 69 countries in 1950–54: Tietze (1977)Google Scholar


  1. Paget’s diseaseEurope: Detheridge et al (1982) Great Britain: Barker and Gardner (1974)Google Scholar

Accidents and Violence

  1. Road accidentsIndustrial countries: Chesnais (1983)Google Scholar
  2. Suicide 19 countries: Sainsbury and Jenkins (1982) Denmark, England and Wales, Ireland: Walsh et al. (1984)Google Scholar

Particular Age Groups

  1. Childhood South America (9 countries in 1968–71): Puffer and Serramo (1973) 97 countries: Dyson (1977) EEC countries: Blondel et al (1985)Google Scholar
  2. Adolescents 97 countries: Dyson (1977) 8 countries: WHO (1977c) Violent deaths in various countries: WHO (1986a)Google Scholar
  3. Adults United States (11 causes by age, sex and race in 1968-72): NCHS (1980)Google Scholar

2.4.9 Trends in Mortality

  1. The following notes provide an annotated bibliography of the major international and national publications on trends in mortality. This excludes (a) those that deal with a relatively short time period and (b) reports based on relatively small numbers of deaths. Also, it excludes articles in journals, where the consideration of trends is just one minor facet of an article and not a major review of the topic. The list begins with a consideration of those reviews that cover mortality for one or more countries and deal with a number of different causes of death. These are listed by alphabetical order of the countries involved. The second section deals with the reverse, i.e. reviews of specific causes of death which have presented trend data for one or more countries. The causes are listed in order of the ICD, and within cause the material covers multinational studies first and then individual countries in alphabetical order.Google Scholar
  2. The text has already indicated the wealth of mortality statistics regularly published by UN and WHO. Only special articles with comment on trend are included in the bibliography.Google Scholar International Studies World

  1. WHO (1980a): life expectancy and crude mortality for all countries 1973–77Google Scholar


  1. Caselli and Egidi (1980): general reviewGoogle Scholar
  2. Lopez and Cliquet (1984): general review of demographic trendsGoogle Scholar
  3. Lynge (1984): trends in mortality, 1950–80Google Scholar
  4. Teper and Backett (1984): demographic trends in persons 0–19Google Scholar
  5. Heikkinen (1984): demographic trends persons 60 +Google Scholar
  6. Brzezinski (1985): mortality 1960–79 for 18 main causesGoogle Scholar

Latin America

  1. Palloni and Wyrick (1981): main causes in 1950–75Google Scholar


  1. Basavarajappa and Lindsay (1976): 1960–62 v. 1970–72 Statistics Canada (1976): age-standardised rates by sex for 21 causes of death, 1950–-72; in addition, special reviews covered accidents, cancer, cardiovascular renal mortality, infant mortality and suicideGoogle Scholar

Chinese Population

  1. Ling (1981): 30 years—7 main causes for 1949–78Google Scholar


  1. Srb and Haas (1956): mortality from each of the 17 chapters of the ICD, for 1919–48 for personsGoogle Scholar
  2. Developed Countries (Japan, FDR, United States)Google Scholar
  3. Junge (1985): main causes of deathGoogle Scholar

England and Wales

  1. Logan (1950–51): 37 causes by age and sex, 1848–1947Google Scholar
  2. Campbell (1965): 32 causes by age and sex, 1931–61Google Scholar
  3. OPCS (1978a): 63 causes, 1951–75Google Scholar


  1. Strommer (1969): demographic transition and infant mortality, 1887–1965Google Scholar
  2. Kannisto (1947): expectation of life, competing causes and years of life lostGoogle Scholar


  1. Aubenque et al. (1978): mortality by 14 causes, age and sex, 1925–74Google Scholar


  1. Davies (1979): various broad causes for 1948–77Google Scholar


  1. Instituto Centrale di Statistica (1958): mortality by age and 6th revision of ICD for 1887–1955Google Scholar
  2. Capocaccia (1986): all causes, 1880–1980Google Scholar


  1. Hishinuma (1981): 29 causes, 1947–78Google Scholar
  2. Netsky and Miyaji (1977): leading causes of death, 1925–65Google Scholar


  1. Vandale et al (1983): main causes, 1950–75Google Scholar


  1. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (1957): 14 causes by age and sex, 1921–55Google Scholar


  1. Statistick Sentralbyra (1961): limited causes by age and sexGoogle Scholar
  2. Statistisk Sentralbyra (1966): main causes, 1901–63Google Scholar
  3. Statistiek Sentralbyra (1974): mortality by age and sex for underlying and associated causes, 1951–70Google Scholar


  1. Soares and da Motta (1950): all causes and eight infectious diseases, 1902–52Google Scholar


  1. Carstairs and Redpath (1986): 1974–83Google Scholar

United States

  1. Linder and Grove (1943): 58 causes by age and sex, 1900–40 Grove and Hetzel (1968): ICD 3rd digit by age and sex, 1900–60 Erhardt and Berlin (1974): general discussions of mortality and longevity (with some international comparisons), morbidity, geographic variation, use of medical services, influence of marital status, and infant mortalityGoogle Scholar Cause-specific Studies Infections

  1. General reviews US trends, 1935–61: Dauer et al. (1968)Google Scholar
  2. Cholera India and Burma, 1938–45: WHO (1948b)Google Scholar
  3. Diphtheria 24 countries, 1901–54: WHO (1955a)Google Scholar
  4. Malaria 15 countries, 1901–49: WHO (1951)Google Scholar
  5. Measles 15 countries, 1901–49: WHO (1951) United States, 1900–72: Barkin (1975)Google Scholar
  6. Scarlet fever 27 countries, 1901–52: WHO (1954a)Google Scholar
  7. Smallpox 15 countries, 1901–49: WHO (1951)Google Scholar
  8. Syphilis 24 countries, 1901-52: WHO (1954b) US trends, 1900-65: Brown et al. (1970)Google Scholar
  9. Neurosyphilis England and Wales, 1911–69: Purdon Martin (1972)Google Scholar
  10. Tetanus England and Wales, 1930–79: Galbraith et al. (1981)Google Scholar
  11. Tuberculosis 8 countries, 1851–1940; Springett (1950); 55 countries, mortality for 1961–72: Bulla (1977); Britain, 1945–1970: Springett (1971); US trends: Lovell (1969)Google Scholar
  12. Typhoid 26 countries, 1901–54: WHO (1955b)Google Scholar
  13. Typhus 15 countries, 1901–49: WHO (1951)Google Scholar
  14. Whooping cough 23 countries, 1901–54: WHO (1956)Google Scholar


  1. 44 countries 16 sites, 1955–65: WHO (1970b)Google Scholar
  2. 24 countries 18 sites, 1950–79: Kurihara et al. (1984)Google Scholar
  3. 24 European countriesall neoplasms, 1955–74: Campbell (1980)Google Scholar
  4. 24 European countrieslung, stomach, colon, prostate, breast, 1955–74: Campbell (1980)Google Scholar
  5. Belgium 1960–79: Beckers et al. (1982)Google Scholar
  6. Canada 10 sites, 1941–53: Phillips and Owchar (1955)Google Scholar
  7. England and Wales 1911–70: OPCS (1975a) 1911–78: Alderson (1982b)Google Scholar
  8. France 1954–76: Berlie et al (1980)Google Scholar
  9. Great Britain 1961–78: Cancer Research Campaign (1982)Google Scholar
  10. Japan 1900–54, extended with some age- and sex-specific sites for 1899–62: Segi et al (1955, 1965) 1950–74: Hirayama (1977)Google Scholar
  11. United States 1930–55: Gordon et al (1974) 1950–67: Burbank (1971) 1935–74: Devesa and Silverman (1978) 1950–77: McKay et al (1982) 1930–61: Lilienfeld et al (1972) 1973–77: Young et al (1981)Google Scholar
  12. USSR 1961–67 Ferenko and Romensky 1970Google Scholar

Specific Sites of Malignancy

  1. Colorectal New Zealand: Smith et al (1985)Google Scholar
  2. Liver 37 countries, 1963–72: Aoki (1978)Google Scholar
  3. Pancreas 38 countries, 1950–72: Aoki and Ogawa (1978)Google Scholar
  4. Lung 44 countries, 1950–72: Benjamin (1977) Western Europe, 1954–76: Council of Europe (1978) Spain, 1951-80: Vioque and Bolumar (1987)Google Scholar
  5. Sweden and United States, 1950–82: Manton et al (1986) United States, 1914–50: Gilliam (1955)Google Scholar
  6. Melanoma 40 countries, 1955–74: Jensen and Bolander (1980)Google Scholar
  7. Breast 19 countries, 1920–53: Pascua (1956)Google Scholar
  8. Ovary 8 countries, 1955–74: Muir and Nectoux (1978)Google Scholar
  9. Uterus 19 countries, 1920–53: Pascua (1956)Google Scholar
  10. Bladder 40 countries, 1955–74: Staszewski (1980a)Google Scholar
  11. Kidney 49 countries, 1955–74: Staszewski (1980b)Google Scholar
  12. Prostate 36 countries, 1957–72: Hakulinen et al (1978) England and Wales, 1911–75: Alderson (1981b)Google Scholar
  13. Thyroid England and Wales, 1931–75: Alderson (1980a)Google Scholar
  14. Hodgkin’s disease 37 countries, 1957–72: Correa (1977)Google Scholar
  15. Leukaemia 5 countries, 1920–75: Alderson (1980b)Google Scholar
  16. Children’s cancer 29 countries, 1955–74: West (1984) Great Britain, 1959-79: Draper et al (1982) Sweden, 1958–74: Erichsson et al (1978)Google Scholar

Endocrine Disease

  1. Diabetes England and Wales, 1920–70: Trowell (1974) 1968–80: Robinson et al (1984) United States 1970–78: Holman et al (1983)Google Scholar

Nervous system

  1. General United States, 1901–68: Kurland et al (1973)Google Scholar
  2. Epilepsy Various countries, 1901–53: WHO (1955c)Google Scholar
  3. Multiple sclerosis Various countries: Acheson (1972) Norway, 1951-68: Westlund (1970)Google Scholar
  4. Parkinsons disease 18 countries, 1921–53: WHO (1955d) England and Wales, 1855–1962: Duvoisin and Schweitzer (1966) 1921–68: Brown and Knox (1972)Google Scholar

Mental Disorders

  1. United States, 1901–67: Kramer et al (1972)Google Scholar

Cardiovascular Disease

  1. Heart disease 27 industrialised countries, 1968–77: Pisa and Uemura (1982) 26 countries, 1950–78: Thorn et al (1985) 27 industrialised countries, 1969-–82: Uemura and Pisa (1985) 26 industrialised countries, 1970–82: WHO (1986b) England and Wales, 1951–75: OPCS (1978b) England and Wales (women), 1955–72: Beral (1976) Finland, 1969–79: Salonen et al (1983) 1969–82: Tuomilehto et al (1986) Italy, 1968–78: La Vecchia and Decarli (1986) Philippines, 1963–76: Tuomilehto et al (1984) Switzerland, 1951–76: Guberan (1979) United States, 1900–45: Woolsey and Moriyama (1946) 1901–66: Moriyama et al (1971) 1940–75: Cooper et al (1978) 1950–76: Havlik and Feinlieb (1979) 1925–75: Patrick et al (1982)Google Scholar
  2. Cerebrovascular diseaseAustralia, 1950–78: Dobson et al (1981) England and Wales, 1950–73: Acheson and Sanderson (1978) Ireland, 1920–55: Acheson (1960) Israel, 1969–78: Epstein and Zaarour (1982) Japan, 1920–65: Netsky and Miyaji (1976) 1956–80: Ueshima et al (1984) 1960–79: Tanaka et al (1982) New Zealand, 1953–79: Bonita and Beaglehole (1982) Singapore, 1959–83: Hughes (1987)Google Scholar
  3. United States, 1930–60: Kuller et al. (1968) 1960–75: Soltero et al. (1978)Google Scholar
  4. Ischaemic heart disease 21 countries, 1950–74: Marmot et al. (1981) 27 countries, 1968–77: Pisa and Uemura (1982) 29 countries, 1969–81: Tunstall-Pedoe et al. (1986) Australia, 1950–78: Dobson et al. (1981) England and Wales, 1900–60: Robb-Smith (1967) England and Wales, 1950–73: Clayton et al. (1977) Finland, 1951–80: Pyorala and Valkonen (1981) Israel, 1969–78: Epstein and Zaarour (1982) Japan, 1956–80: Ueshima et al. (1987) Poland, 1971–77: Rywik and Wagrowska (1979) Singapore, 1959–83: Hughes (1986) United Kingdom, 1968–80: Heller et al. (1983) United States, 1950–76: Havlik and Feinlieb (1979) USSR trends: Cooper (1981)Google Scholar
  5. Hypertension Japan, 1956–80: Ueshima et al. (1984) New Zealand, 1973–82: Bonita and Beaglehole (1986) Singapore, 1959–83: Hughes 1987Google Scholar

Respiratory Disease

  1. Various countries1971–80: Melia and Swan (1986)Google Scholar
  2. 30 countries 1950–72: Bouvier and Guidevaux (1979)Google Scholar
  3. Asthma 6 countries, 1968–78, ages 5–34: Jackson et al. (1982) England and Wales, 1867–1966, ages 5-–34: Speizer and Doll (1968) 1976–83: Ayres (1986) 1974–84: Burney (1986)Google Scholar
  4. Chronic bronchitis England and Wales, 1939-50: Goodman et al. (1953) Canada, 1950–84: Manfreda et al. (1986)Google Scholar

Alimentary Disease

  1. General United States, 1930–65: Medeloff and Dunn (1971)Google Scholar
  2. Peptic ulcer England and Wales, 1911–42: Morris and Titmus (1944) 1900–59: Susser and Stein (1962) 1901–77: Susser (1982) 1958–83: Walt et al. (1986) United States, 1970-78: Elashoff and Grossman (1980)Google Scholar
  3. Acute appendicitis 9 countries, 1901–1980: Alderson (1985b) England and Wales, 1931–80: Barker (1986)Google Scholar
  4. Cirrhosis of the liver England and Wales, 1911–75: Donnan and Haskey (1977)Google Scholar

Renal Disease

  1. England and Wales 1955–66: Florey and Kessner (1968) 1949–65: Waters (1968)Google Scholar
  2. England and Wales, and United States 1940–64: Kessner and Florey (1967) 1860–1960: Hansen and Susser (1971)Google Scholar

Maternal Mortality

  1. United States 1935–64: Shapiro et al (1968)Google Scholar

Perinatal Mortality

  1. 7 countries 1935–64: NCHS (1967a)Google Scholar
  2. 8 countries 1969–78: Foster (1981)Google Scholar
  3. United States 1935–64: Shapiro et al (1968)Google Scholar


  1. United States 1901–64: Cobb (1971)Google Scholar

Accidents and Violence

  1. England and Wales 1951–75: OPCS (1978a)Google Scholar
  2. France 1826–1970: Chesnais (1976)Google Scholar
  3. Netherlands 1967–78: de Haas (1982)Google Scholar
  4. United States 1900–64: Iskrant and Joliet (1968) 1900–75: Holinger and Kiemen (1982) 1967–78: de Haas (1982)Google Scholar
  5. In children 50 countries, 1950–78: Marmsonn and Delurnisch (1977) United States, 1900–80: Holinger et al (1983–85)Google Scholar
  6. In elderly Finland, 1951–79: Kivela and Honkanen (1986)Google Scholar
  7. Suicide 45 countries, 1955–66: WHO (1968a) Australia, 1955–70: Oliver and Hetzel (1973) England and Wales, 1900–76: Jennings and Barraclough (1980) 1950–82: Bulusu and Alderson (1984) England and Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Ireland, 1960–73: Dean et al (1976a)Google Scholar
  8. Homicide United States, 1900–74: Klebba (1975)Google Scholar
  9. Infant and/or childhood 32 countries, 1951–73: Dyson (1977) 21 Latin American countries, 1950–72: Baum and Arriagha (1981) 14 developing countries, 1950–78: Bhatty (1981)Google Scholar
  10. 25 countries,1955–79:Macfarlane and Mugford (1984) Number of children who die in the world: Gwatkin (1980) Socioeconomic differentials in child mortality in developing countries: Department of International and Social Affairs (1985) Poland, 1950–79: Mazur (1983)Google Scholar
  11. Adults aged 35–64 18 developed countries for sevencauses, 1950–73: Ovcharov and Bystrova (1978)Google Scholar
  12. Adults aged 55–64 Australia, 1966–72: Ireland and Lawson (1980)Google Scholar
  13. Elderly 30 countries, 1955–78: Lopez and Hanada (1982) United States, 1948–78: Fingerhut (1982)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Michael Alderson 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Alderson
    • 1
  1. 1.SouthamptonUK

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