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The Political Debate in the Federal Republic of Germany

  • Hans Günter Brauch

Abstract

No defence issues since the adoption of NATO’s strategy of flexible response and of the political goals of the 1967 ‘Harmel Report’ have been as divisive politically within governments, coalitions, parties, churches and trade unions in Western Europe. While the 1979 INF decision caused the formation of a new independent peace movement and posed a basic challenge to NATO’s nuclear posture and its first use option as well as to the search for alternative political and military security and arms control policies,1 President Reagan’s strategic vision of overcoming deterrence based on offensive nuclear weapons neither halted the disintegration of public nuclear policy acceptance and the erosion of the common foreign and security policy consensus within the Alliance nor persuaded the West European governments (who had implemented the INF decision at a high political price) and the European anti-nuclear movement to jump on the SDI bandwagon. Instead President Reagan’s ‘Star Wars’ vision and the subsequent SDI programme became even more divisive within coalition governments — in West Germany in particular — between France and the Federal Republic of Germany, within the Western European Union, and within the European Communities and the North Atlantic Alliance.2

Keywords

Foreign Policy Coalition Government Foreign Minister United States Government Cruise Missile 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    Hans Günter Brauch, ‘INF and the Current NATO discussion on Alliance Strategy’, in Hans-Henrik Holm and Nikolaj Petersen (eds), The European Missiles Crisis: Nuclear Weapons and Security Policy (London: Pinter, 1983) pp. 156–202;Google Scholar
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  3. 2.
    Hans Günter Brauch, ‘From Strategic to Tactical Defense? European Reactions to the “Star Wars” Vision’, in John McIntyre (ed.), International Space Policy (New York: Greenwood, 1987).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    See Raymond L. Garthoff, Detente and Confrontation: American—Soviet Relations—From Nixon to Reagan (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1985);Google Scholar
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    See Marsha MCGraw and Jeffrey D. Porro (eds), Nuclear Weapons in Europe: Modernization and Limitation (Toronto, Lexington: Lexington Books, 1983).Google Scholar
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    Hans Günter Brauch, ‘What resources for defense—Rejoinder’, Netherlands Institute of International Relations, Clingendael (ed.), Conventional Balance in Europe: Problems, Strategies and Technologies, Zoetermeer, 11–13 May 1984, pp. 43–9.Google Scholar
  8. 12.
    Wolfgang R. Vogt, ‘The Acceptance Question and the Legitimacy of NATO’s Nuclear Defence Posture in the FRG’, in Hans Günter Brauch and Robert Kennedy (eds), Alternative Conventional Defense Postures in the European Theater—The Future of the Military Balance and Domestic Constraints (forthcoming in 1987).Google Scholar
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    Lothar Wilker, Die Sicherheitspolitik der SPD 1955–1966. Zwischen Wiedervereinigung und Bündnisorientierung (Bonn-Bad Godesberg: Verlag Neue Gesellschaft, 1977);Google Scholar
  10. Hans Günter Brauch, ‘Arms Control and Disarmament Decisionmaking in the Federal Republic of Germany’, in Hans Günter Brauch and Duncan L. Clarke (eds), Decisionmaking for Arms Limitation—Assessments and Prospects (Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger, 1983) pp. 131–74.Google Scholar
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    Hermann Scheer, ‘Der Ost—West-Konflikt und die Antwort der NATO—Eine kritische Auseinandersetzung mit dem AirLand Battle-Konzept’, in Hans Günter Brauch (ed.), Sicherheitspolitik am Ende? Eine Bestandsaufnahme, Perspektiven und neue Ansätze (Gerlingen: Bleicher Verlag, 1984) pp. 204–13.Google Scholar
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    NAA, Military Committee, General Report on Alliance Security, Mr Michael Forrestal (Canada), General Rapporteur (Brussels: North Atlantic Assembly, November 1984) p. 23.Google Scholar
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    For details see Hans Günter Brauch, Antitactical Missile Defense—Will the European Version of SDI Undermine the ABM-Treaty, AFES Papier 1 (Stuttgart: AG Friedensforschung und Europäische Sicherheitspolitik (AFES), Institut für Politikwissenschaft, Universität Stuttgart, July 1985); see also Brauch, in McIntyre (ed.), International Space Policy. Google Scholar
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    Helmut Kohl, ‘Die Bundesrepublik Deutschland und Europa im Nordatlantischen Bündnis’, Europäische Wehrkunde 34 (March 1985) pp. 133–40.Google Scholar
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    Der Bundesminister der Verteidigung, Weissbuch 1985, Zur Lage und Entwicklung der Bundeswehr (Bonn: BMVg, June 1985) pp. 30–3.Google Scholar
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    Der Bundesminister der Verteidigung, Bericht zur Strategischen Verteidigungsinitiative (SDI) der USA (Bonn, BMVg, 20 August 1985).Google Scholar
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    Hans Rühle, ‘A European Perspective on the US—Soviet Strategic—Military Relationship’, in William Schneider, Jr et al., US Strategic—Nuclear Policy and Ballistic Missile Defense: The 1980s and Beyond (Cambridge: Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis, 1980), p. 51.Google Scholar
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    Volker Rühe and Willy Wimmer, ‘Über den derzeitigen Stand der fraktionsinternen Beratungen über Weltraumsysteme berichten’, CDU/CSU Fraktion, Pressereferat, 9 October 1984; Alexander Szandar, ‘Perspective: Bonn changes stance over Star wars concept’, The German Tribune, 1140, 23 September 1984, p. 5.Google Scholar
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    Reiner Labusch, Eckart Maus und Wolfgang Send (eds), Weltraum ohne Waffen. Naturwissenschaftler warnen vor der Militarisierung des Weltraums (München: C. Bertelsmann, 1984).Google Scholar
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    Deuischer Bundestag, 10. Wahlperiode, Drucksache 10/2040, 26 September 1984, Antrag der Fraktion der SPD: Vertrag zur Begrenzung der militärischen Nutzung des Weltraums (Bonn: Verlag Heger, 26 September 1984); see also the statement by Dr Scheer, in Deutscher Bundestag, 10. Wahlperiode, 98. Sitzung, 8 November 1984, Bundestags-Protokolle, pp. 7054–7056.Google Scholar
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    Hans Günter Brauch, Die Raketen kommen! Vom NATO-Doppelbeschluss bis zur Stationierung (Köln: Bund, 1983).Google Scholar
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    See, for example, Dr J. Häger, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 20 July 1985.Google Scholar
  24. 236.
    Among the publications critical of the SDI: see Labusch, Maus and Send (eds), Weltraum ohne Waffen-Naturwissenschaftler. Hans Günter Brauch, Angriff aus dem All — Der Rüstungswettlauf im Weltraum (Berlin-Bonn: Dietz, 1984);Google Scholar
  25. in favour of the SDI: Wolfgang Schreiber, Die Strategische Verteidigungsinitiative (Melle: Verlag Ernst Knoth, 1985).Google Scholar
  26. 239.
    Hans Günter Brauch, 30 Thesen und 10 Bewertungen zur Strategischen Verteidigungsinitiative (SDI) und zur Europäischen Verteidigungsinitiative (EVI), AFES Papier 2 (Stuttgart: AG Friedensforschung und Europäische Sicherheitspolitik (AFES), Institut für Politikwissenschaft, Universität Stuttgart, January 1986);Google Scholar
  27. Hans Günter Brauch, Militärische Komponenten einer Europäischen Verteidigungsinitiative Amerikanische militärische Planungen zur Abwehr sowjetischer ballistischer Raketen in Europa, AFES Papier 3 (Stuttgart: AFES, February 1986);Google Scholar
  28. Hans Günter Brauch and Rainer Fischbach, Military Use of Outer Space — A Research Bibliography, AFES Papier 4 (Stuttgart: AFES, February 1986).Google Scholar
  29. 240.
    Hartmut Bebermeyer and Bernd Grass, ‘Unsere Streitkräfte auf dem Wege in die Ressourcenkrise’, in Hans Günter Brauch (ed.), Sicherheitspolitik am Ende? Eine Bestandsaufnahme, Perspektiven und neue Ansätze (Gerlingen: Bleicher, 1984).Google Scholar

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© Hans Günter Brauch 1987

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  • Hans Günter Brauch

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