The design and the workings of a planning system involve every executive and manager in a basically political process. The people within the system determine how, and how effectively, it will work. Patterns of information-flow and decision-making depend heavily on the power and negotiating and persuasive skills of individuals committed to the planning process and to specific plans. Before turning to a comparative description of the five oil companies’ planning systems, therefore, this chapter will discuss briefly how the critical human factor can be taken into account in a planning system. In reading the explanations and comparisons of the oil-company planning systems, the reader would do well to remember that the kinds of systems put in place and the way they work depend on the political and marketing acumen of planning executives and managers.
KeywordsPlanning Process Planning System Business Group Group Planning Corporate Identity
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