Skip to main content

Academies and industrialists

  • Chapter
  • 106 Accesses


There are so many facets to almost any subject worthy and old enough to deserve a historical record that to tell the whole in its proper time sequence would be to lose the reader in a sea of facts and details, some related, others not at all. Electric motors and generators ‘came of age’ over almost the same period that engineering was becoming clean and respectable as a profession. Although technology (inextricably entangled with engineering so that it can never, in my view, be unravelled) preceded science, indeed paved the way for it, scientists were regarded for centuries as belonging to the upper class, the intelligentsia, so closely related to philosophers as to allow overlap. In such a world, technology was not recognised as a subject and engineers, by definition, did not appear until there were ‘engines’ for them to look after. Even then an engineer looked after his engines much as a shepherd did his sheep.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  • Brown, R. (1969), ‘Travelling magnetic waves in electrical machines described by rotating vectors’, Proc. IEE, Vol. 116, No. 6, pp. 1011–1013

    Google Scholar 

  • Laithwaite, E. R. (1965), ‘Differences between series and parallel connection in machines with asymmetric magnetic circuits’, Proc. IEE, Vol. 112, No. 11, pp.2074–2082

    Google Scholar 

  • Laithwaite, E. R. (1967), ‘Magnetic equivalent circuits for electrical machines’, Proc. IEE, Vol. 114, No. 11, pp. 1805–1809

    Google Scholar 

  • Laithwaite, E. R. and Hardy, M. T. (1970), ‘Rack-and-pinion motors: hybrid of linear and rotary machines‘, Proc. IEE, Vol. 117, No. 6, pp. 1105–1112

    Google Scholar 

  • Sadler, G. V. and Davey, A. W. (1971), ‘Applications of linear induction motors in industry’, Proc. IEE, Vol. 118, No. 6, pp. 1044–1056

    Google Scholar 

  • Sundberg, Y. (1969), ‘Magnetic travelling fields for metallurgical processes’, Spectrum, Vol. 6, No. 5, pp. 79–88

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Williams, F. C, Laithwaite, E. R. and Eastham, J. F. (1959), ‘Development and design of spherical induction motors’, Proc. IEE, Vo. 106A, No. 30, pp. 471–484

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Copyright information

© 1987 Eric R. Laithwaite

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Laithwaite, E.R. (1987). Academies and industrialists. In: A History of Linear Electric Motors. Palgrave, London.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Publisher Name: Palgrave, London

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-349-08298-8

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-349-08296-4

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)