Macmillan and Kennedy: The Test-ban Negotiations, 1960–3

  • J. P. G. Freeman


The breakdown of the Summit Meeting in 1960 produced a position of immobilism in Soviet-Western relations. The Summit failure coupled with the forthcoming Presidential Elections in America, meant that leading administration officials turned their attention in 1960 to tasks other than nuclear arms control.1


Nuclear Weapon Nuclear Test Atmospheric Test Atmospheric Nuclear Test Naval Blockade 
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Notes and References

  1. 1.
    See, for example, George Kistiakowski, A Scientist at the White House (Cambridge, Mass., 1977) p. 378.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. M. Schlesinger, A Thousand Days (Boston, 1965) p. 452; Wright, p. 120; Interview material.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schlesinger, p. 453. On Kennedy’s attitude to nuclear weapons and a test ban, see William Kaufmann, The McNamara Strategy (London, 1964) pp. 40–44.Google Scholar
  4. 9.
    Eisenhower reportedly told President-elect Kennedy that he favoured test resumption, G. T. Seaborg, Kennedy, Khruschev and the Test Ban (Berkeley, 1981) p. 25.Google Scholar
  5. 18.
    None the less in the wider framework of defence policy, the Kennedy Administration quickly sought to effect changes: to emphasise greater reliance on conventional forces and more survivable strategic nuclear forces. See, for example, W. Kaufman, The McNamara Strategy (New York, 1964).Google Scholar
  6. A. C. Enthoven, and K. Wayne Smith, How Much is Enough? Shaping the Defence Programme, 1961–69 (New York, 1971).Google Scholar
  7. 42.
    Interview material. Schlesinger, pp. 430–3; Macmillan, At the End of the Day, pp. 153, 145–6; A. Sampson, Macmillan: A Study in Ambiguity (London, 1968) pp. 224–5.Google Scholar
  8. 117.
    Documents on Disarmament ACDA, 1962, pp. 991–5. On Soviet attitudes see L. P. Bloomfield, W. C. Clemens, and F. Griffiths, Khruschev and the Arms Race: Soviet Interests in Arms Control and Disarmament 1954–64 (Cambridge, 1966).Google Scholar
  9. 121.
    Hailsham, Rt Hon. The Lord, The Door Wherein I Went (London, 1978), p. 215.Google Scholar
  10. 128.
    L. W. Martin, British Defence Policy: The Long Recessional, Adelphi Paper 61 (London, 1969) pp. 1–2.Google Scholar
  11. 137.
    R. Ranger, Arms and Politics 1958–78 (Toronto, 1979) p. 63.Google Scholar
  12. 147.
    US ACDA, Documents on Disarmament 1963, Washington, D.C., GPO, 1964, p. 220.Google Scholar
  13. 150.
    H. B. Moulton, From Superiority to Parity (Westport, Conn., 1973) pp. 129–30.Google Scholar
  14. 182.
    Interview material; W. A. Harriman, America and Russia in a Changing World (London, 1971) p. 95.Google Scholar
  15. 188.
    E. Sorenson, Kennedy (New York, 1965) p. 736.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© J. P. G. Freeman 1986

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  • J. P. G. Freeman

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