The Period Of Gentle Pressure: The Mansfield Resolutions, 1966–70

  • Phil Williams


In 1966 the congressional pressure for troop withdrawals from Western Europe changed significantly. What had hitherto been the isolated murmurings of a small, albeit growing, number of individuals became a much more focused and institutionalised — if still rather modest — protest movement against the status quo in NATO. From 1966 through to 1970, Majority Leader Mansfield introduced a series of Senate resolutions recommending that the number of American troops in Europe be considerably reduced. Although these resolutions were never pushed to the vote, Mansfield gathered an increasing number of co-sponsors, thereby displaying the growing sentiment in the Chamber in favour of a smaller American presence in Western Europe.


Policy Committee Gentle Pressure National Security Council American Troop Majority Leader 
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Notes and References

  1. 3.
    See B. Welles, ‘15,000 U.S. Troops to Leave Europe’, New York Times, 8 April 1966.Google Scholar
  2. 5.
    M. Mansfield, Congressional Record, 25 April 1966, p. 8874.Google Scholar
  3. 6.
    M. Mansfield, Congressional Record, 27 July 1966, p. 17338.Google Scholar
  4. 8.
    J. Pastore, Congressional Record, 31 August 1966, p. 20559.Google Scholar
  5. 9.
    S. Symington, Congressional Record, 6 September 1966, p. 21832.Google Scholar
  6. 10.
    M. Mansfield, Congressional Record, 7 September 1966, p. 21885.Google Scholar
  7. 20.
    E. W. Kenworthy, ‘Senate Bloc Assaults Troop Cut Proposal’, New York Times, 2 Sept 1966.Google Scholar
  8. 21.
    Quoted in J. Herbers, ‘Senators Assail Proposed Troop Slash in Europe’, New York Times, 7 September 1966.Google Scholar
  9. 22.
    For Dirksen’s position see J. Herbers, ibid. and ‘Dirksen Opposes Cutback of U.S. Forces in Europe’, New York Herald Tribune, 3 /4 September 1966.Google Scholar
  10. 31.
    J. W. Finney, ‘Mansfield Resumes Campaign For a Cut in Troops in Europe’, New York Times, 20 Jan 1967.Google Scholar
  11. 32.
    M. Mansfield, letter to Senate colleagues dated 10 Jan 1967 (Mansfield Collection).Google Scholar
  12. 33.
    Letter from J. W. Fulbright to Senator Mansfield dated 12 Jan 1967 (Mansfield Collection).Google Scholar
  13. 38.
    J. W. Finney, ‘GOP Seeks Shift on Europe Policy — Has White House Support in Effort to take Initiative in Senate from Democrats’, New York Times, 13 Feb 1967.Google Scholar
  14. 39.
    D. S. Broder, ‘“Great Debate” on NATO Due Today’, New York Herald Tribune, 15 Feb 1967.Google Scholar
  15. 42.
    L. B. Johnson, The Vantage Point: Perspectives of the Presidency, 1963–1969 (New York: Polular Library, 1971) p. 309.Google Scholar
  16. 57.
    C. R. Gellner, The Mansfield Proposals to Reduce United States Troops in Western Europe, 1967–1973, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 25 June 1980, p. 12.Google Scholar
  17. 58.
    S. Symington, Congressional Record, 27 Feb 1968, reprinted in Report, pp. 73–4.Google Scholar
  18. 60.
    F. Church ‘Proposal to Europeanise NATO’, Congressional Record, 7 March 1968, pp. 52387–52388. Some of Pearson’s comments are reprinted in Report, pp. 74–7.Google Scholar
  19. 62.
    J. W. Finney, ‘Mansfield will Resume Effors to Cut U.S. Troops in Europe’, New York Times, 11 Jan 1968.Google Scholar
  20. 68.
    See M. Mansfield, ‘The Situation in Czechoslavakia and U.S. Forces in Europe’, Congressional Record, 13 Sept 1918 reprinted in Report, pp. 97–100.Google Scholar
  21. 72.
    W.C. Cromwell, The Eurogroup and NATO, Research Monograph Series No. 18 (Philadelphia: Foreign Policy Research Institute, 1974) p. 16.Google Scholar
  22. 75.
    M. Foley, The New Senate: Liberal Influence on a Conservative Institution, 1959–1972 (New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1980) p. 77.Google Scholar
  23. 78.
    T. Lambert, ‘Mansfield to Renew Proposal to Pull G.I.s out of Europe’, International Herald Tribune, 11 July 1969.Google Scholar
  24. 79.
    For details see E. T. Lampson, The United States and NATO: Commitments, Problems and Prospects, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 21 July 1972, pp. 96–7.Google Scholar
  25. 88.
    M. Mansfield, Congressional Record, 23 Jan 1970, p. S430.Google Scholar
  26. 89.
    D. W. Walker, ‘Burden Sharing in NATO, 1966–1972: American Critics, the Administration and the European Response’, dissertation presented for B A (tions) in Modern History and Politics, Dept of Politics, University of Southampton June 1982, p. 28.Google Scholar
  27. 94.
    J. M. Goshko, ‘NATO Faces Problem That Will Not Die’, International Herald Tribune, 5 Oct 1970.Google Scholar

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© Phil Williams 1985

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  • Phil Williams

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