Structure and Function of Small Blue Copper Proteins

  • Elinor T. Adman
Part of the Topics in Molecular and Structural Biology book series (TMSB)


When one studies the structure of a protein, one is confronted with a plethora of detail: all the reasons for the existence and behaviour of that particular molecule are implicit in its structure. We, as observers, must try and sort out which of those details are relevant to the function, and which to its history or its relatedness to other structures. The structures of the two blue copper proteins, azurin and plastocyanin, provide an opportunity to do just that.


Nitrite Reductase Beta Sheet Resonance Raman Spectrum Blue Copper Paracoccus Denitrificans 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adman, E. T., Canters, G. W., Hill, H. A. O. and Kitchen, N. A. (1982) FEBS Lett., 143, 287CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adman, E. T. and Jensen, L. H. (1981) Israel J. Chem., 21, 8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adman, E. T., Stenkamp, R. E., Sieker, L. C. and Jensen, L. H. (1978) J. mol. Biol., 123, 35CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Adman, E. T., Watenpaugh, K. D. and Jensen, L. H. (1975) Proc. Nat. Acad Sci., 72, 4854CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Aikazyan, V. Ts. and Nalbandyan, R. M. (1979) FEBS Lett., 104, 127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aikazyan, V. Ts. and Nalbandyan, R. M. (1981) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 667, 421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ambler, R. P. (1971) In: Recent Developments in the Chemical Studies of Protein Structures (ed. A. Previero, J.-F. Pechere and C. Previero), Inserm, Paris, p. 289Google Scholar
  8. Ambler, R. P. (1977) In: The Evolution of Metalloenzymes, Metalloproteins and Related Materials, Proceedings of a Symposium of the Inorganic Biochemistry Discussion Group of the Chemical Society, University of Sussex (ed. G. S. Leigh), Symposium Press, London, p. 100–118Google Scholar
  9. Ambler, R. P. (1982) Personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  10. Augustin, M., Chapman, S. K., Davies, D. M. Sykes, G. A., SPECK, S. H. and Margoliash, E. (1983) J. Biol. Chem., 258, 6405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Aviram, I., Myer, Y. P. and Schejter, A. (1981) J. biol. Chem., 256, 5540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bergman, C., Ganvik, E-K., Nyman, P. O. and Strid, L. (1977) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 77, 1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blaszak, J. A., Ulrich, E. L., Markley, J. L. and McMillin, D. R. (1982) Biochemistry, 21, 6253CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Blumberg, W. E. and Powers, L. (1983) Fed. Proc., 41, 862Google Scholar
  15. Bohner, H. and Boger, P. (1978) FEBS Lett., 85, 337CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bohner, H., Bohme, H. and Boger, P. (1980a) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 592, 103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bohner, H., Merkle, H., Kroneck, P. and Boger, P. (1980b) Eur. J. Biochem., 105, 603CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bohner, H., Sandmann, G. and Boger, P. (1981) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 636, 65CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Boulter, D., Haslett, B. G., Peacock, D., Ramshaw, J. A. M. and Scawen, M. D. (1977) Plant Biochemistry II, International Rev. Biochem., 13, 1Google Scholar
  20. Brill, A. S. (1978) Biophys. J., 22, 139CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Brill, A. S., Bryce, G. F. and Maria, H. J. (1968) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 154, 342CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Brudvig, G. W. and Chan, S. I. (1979) FEBS Lett., 106, 139CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Brunori, M., Parr, S. R., Greenwood, C. and Wilson, M. T. (1975) Biochem. J., 151, 185CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Burkey, K. O. and Gross, E. L. (1981) Biochemistry, 20, 5495CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chirgadze, Y. N., Garber, M. B. and Nikonov, S. V. (1977) J. mol. Biol., 113, 443CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Chothia, C. and Lesk, A. M. (1982) J. mol. Biol., 160, 309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Colman, P. M., Freeman, H. C., Guss, J. M., Murata, M., Norris, V. A., Ramshaw, J. A. M. and Venkatappa, M. P. (1978) Nature, Lond., 272, 319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Colman, P. M., Freeman, H. C., Guss, J. M., Murata, M., Norris, V. A., Ramshaw, J. A. M., Venkatappa, M. P. and Vickery, L. E. (1977) J. mol. Biol., 112, 649CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cookson, D. J., Hayes, M. T. and Wright, P. E. (1980) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 591, 162CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cox, J. C., Aasa, R. and Malmstrom, B. G. (1978) FEBS Lett., 93, 157CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cox, J. C. and Boxer, D. H. (1978) Biochem. J., 174, 497CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Cummins, D. and Gray, H. B. (1977) J. Am. chem. Soc., 99, 5158CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Darley-Usmar, V. M., Capaldi, R. A. and Wilson, M. T. (1981) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 103, 1223CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Davis, D. J., Krogmann, D. W. and San Pietro, A. (1980) Plant Physiology, 65, 697CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Davis, D. J. and San Pietro, A. (1979) Anal. Biochem., 95, 254CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Farver, O., Blatt, Y. and Pecht, I. (1982) Biochemistry, 21, 3556CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Farver, O. and Pecht, I. (1981a) Proc. nat. Acad. Sci., 78, 4190CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Farver, O. and Pecht, I. (1981b) Israel J. Chem., 21, 13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Farver, O. and Pecht, I. (1981c) In: Copper Proteins (ed. T. Spiro), John Wiley, New York, p. 151Google Scholar
  40. Farver, O., Shahak, Y. and Pecht, I. (1982b) Biochemistry, 21, 1885CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Fee, J. A. (1975) Structure and Bonding, 23, 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ferris, N. S., Woodruff, W. H., Rorabacher, D. B., Jones, T. E. and Ochrymowycz, L. A. (1978) J. Am. chem. Soc., 100, 5939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ferris, N. S., Woodruff, W. H., Tennent, D. L. and McMillin, D. R. (1979) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 88, 288CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Freeman, H. C. (1981) In: Coordination Chem. Rev. (ed. F. P. Laurent) Pergamon Press, Oxford, 21, p. 29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Freeman, H. C., Garret, T. P. J., Guss, J. M., Murata, M., Yoshizaki, F., Sugimara, Y. and Shimakoriyama, M. (1983) J. mol. Biol., 164, 351CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Freeman, H. C. and Guss, M. (1981) Unpublished work referred to in Freeman (1981)Google Scholar
  47. Goldberg, M. and Pecht, I. (1976) Biochemistry, 15, 4197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gray, H. B. and Solomon, E. I. (1981) In: Copper Proteins (ed. T. Spiro), John Wiley, New York, p. 1Google Scholar
  49. Grimes, C. J., Piskiewicz, D. and Fleisher, E. B. (1974) Proc. nat. Acad. Sci., 71, 1408–1412CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Grossman, A. R., Bartlett, S. G., Schmidt, G. W., Mullet, J. E. and Chua, N-H. (1982) J. biol. Chem., 257, 1558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Guss, J. M. and Freeman, H. C. (1983) J. mol. Biol., 169, 521CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Haehnel, W., Propper, A. and Krause, H. (1980) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 593, 384CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Haslett, B. G., Bailey, C. J., Ramshaw, J. A. M., Scawen, M. D. and Boulter, D. (1978) Phytochemistry, 17, 615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hill, H. A. O. and Lee, W-K. (1979) J. inorg. Biochem., 11, 101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hill, H. A. O., Leer, J. C., Smith, B. E., Storm, C. B. and Ambler, R. P. (1976) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 70, 331CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hill, H. A. O. and Smith, B. E. (1979) J. inorg. Biochem., 11, 79CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Holwerda, R. A., Knaff, D. B., Gray, G. O. and Harsh, C. E. (1981) Biochemistry, 20, 4336CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Holwerda, R. A., Wherland, S. and Gray, H. B. (1976) Ann. Rev. Biophys. and Bioeng., 5, 363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Horio, T. (1958) J. Biochem. (Tokyo), 45, 195Google Scholar
  60. Hurt, Ė. and Hauska, G. (1981) Eur. J. Biochem., 117, 591CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Ingledew, W. J. (1976) Proc. Soc. Ital. Bioch., Oct. 1976, 84Google Scholar
  62. Ingledew, W. J., Cox, J. C. and Halling, P. J. (1977) FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 2, 193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Iwasaki, H. and Matsubara, T. (1973) J. Biochem., 73, 659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kakutani, T., Watanabe, H., Arima, K. and Beppu, T. (1981) J. Biochem., 89, 463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Katoh, S., Shiratori, I. and Takamiya, S. (1962) J. Biochem. (Tokyo), 51, 32Google Scholar
  66. Katoh, S. and Takamiya, A. (1961) Nature, Lond., 189, 665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Keilin, D. and Mann, T. (1940) Nature, Lond., 145, 304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Knaff, D. B., Harsh, C. E. and Holwerda, R. A. (1981) Biochemistry, 20, 4333CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lappin, A. G., Segal, M. G., Weatherburn, D. C., Henderson, R. A. and Sykes, A. G. (1979a) J. Am. chem. Soc., 101, 2302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lappin, A. G., Segal, M. G., Weatherburn, D. C. and Sykes, A. G. (1979b) J. Am. chem. Soc., 101, 2297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lockau, W. (1979) Eur. J. Biochem., 94, 365CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Malmstrom, B. O., Reinhammar, B. and Vanngard, T. (1970) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 205, 48CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Marchesini, A., Minelli, M., Merkle, H. and Kroneck, P. M. H. (1979) Eur. J. Biochem., 101, 77CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Markossian, K. A., Aikazyan, V. Ts. and Nalbandyan, R. M. (1974) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 395, 47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Marks, R. H. L. (1982) Fed. Proc., 41, 890Google Scholar
  76. Marks, R. H. L. and Miller, R. D. (1979) Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 195, 103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Martinkus, K., Kennelly, P. J., Rea, T. and Timkovich, R. (1980) Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 199, 465CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Mayhew, S. G. and Ludwig, M. L. (1975) In: The Enzymes (ed. P. D. Boyer), Vol. 12, Academic Press, New York, p. 57Google Scholar
  79. McMillin, D. R. and Morris, M. C. (1981) Proc. nat. Acad. Sci., 78, 6567CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Mitra, S. and Bersohn, R. (1982) Proc. nat. Acad. Sci., 79, 6807CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Morgan, R. S., Tatsch, C. E., Gushard, R. H., McAdon, J. M. and Warme, P. K. (1978) Int. J. Prot. Pept. Res., 11, 209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Morpurgo, G. and Pecht, I. (1982) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 104, 1592CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Murata, M., Begg, G.S., Lambrou, F., Leslie, B., Simpson, R. J., Freeman, H. C. and Morgan, F. J. (1982) Proc. nat. Acad. Sci., 79, 6434CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Norris, G. E., Anderson, B. F. and Baker, E. N. (1983) J. mol. Biol., 165, 501CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Norris, G. E., Anderson, B. F., Baker, E. N. and Rumball, S. V. (1979) J. mol. Biol., 135, 309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Omura, T. (1961) J. Biochem. (Tokyo), 50, 394Google Scholar
  87. Parr, S. R., Barber, D., Greenwood, C. and Brunori, M. (1977) Biochem. J., 167, 447CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Paul, K. G. and Stigbrand, T. (1970) Biochem. Biophys. Acta, 221, 255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Pecht, I. and Rosen, P. (1973) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 50, 853CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Penfield, K. W., Gay, R. R., Himmelwright, R. S., Eickman, N. C., Norris, V. A., Freeman, H. C. and Solomon, E. I. (1981) J. Am. chem. Soc., 103, 4382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Powers, L., Chance, B., Ching, Y. and Angiolillo, P. (1981) Proc. nat. Acad. Sci., 77, 928Google Scholar
  92. Ramshaw, J. A. M. (1982) Phytochemistry, 21, 1317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ramshaw, J. A. M. (1982) Phytochemistry, 21, 1317 Reinhammar, B. R. M. (1972) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 275, 245Google Scholar
  94. Ronnberg, M., Araiso, T., Ellfolk, N. and Dunford, B. (1981) J. Biol. Chem., 256, 2471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Rosen, P. and Pecht, I. (1976) Biochemistry, 15, 775CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Rosen, P., Segal, M. and Pecht, I. (1981) Eur. J. Biochem., 120, 339CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Ryden, L. and Lundgren, J-O. (1976) Nature, Lond., 261, 344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ryden, L. and Lundgren, J-O. (1979) Biochemie, 61, 781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Scawen, M. D., Ramshaw, J. A. M. and Boulter, D. (1975) Biochem. J., 147, 343CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Scott, R. A., Hahn, J. E., Doniach, S., Freeman, H. C. and Hodgson, K. O. (1982) J. Am. chem. Soc., 104, 5364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sieker, L. C. (1981) Ph.D. thesis, University of Washington, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  102. Silvestrini, M. C., Brunori, M., Wilson, M. T. and Darley-Usmar, V. M. (1981) J. inorg. Biochem., 14, 327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Solomon, E. I., Hare, J. W., Dooley, D. M., Dawson, J. H., Stephens, P. J. and Gray, H. B. (1980) J. Am. chem. Soc., 97, 5260Google Scholar
  104. Solomon, E. I., Hare, J. W. and Gray, H. B. (1976) Proc. nat. Acad. Sci., 73, 1389CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Spiro, T. (Ed.) (1981) Copper Proteins, John Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  106. Steffens, G. J. and Buse, G. (1979) Hoppe Seylers Z. Physiol. Chem., 360, 613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Stigbrand, T. (1970) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 236, 246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Stigbrand, T. (1972) FEBS Lett., 23, 41CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Stigbrand, T., Malmstrom, B. G. and Vanngard, T. (1971) FEBS Lett., 12, 260CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Strigbrand, T. and Sjoholm, I. (1972) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 263, 244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Strahs, G. (1969) Science, N. Y., 165, 60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sutherland, I. W. and Wilkinson, J. F. (1963) J. gen. Microbiol., 30, 105CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Suzuki, H. and Iwasaki, H. (1962) J. Biochem. (Tokyo), 52, 193Google Scholar
  114. Takabe, T., Niwa, S., Ishikawa, H. and Miyakawa, M. (1980a) J. Biochem., 87, 111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Takabe, T., Niwa, S. and Ishikawa, H. (1980b) J. Biochem., 87, 1335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Takano, T. and Dickerson, R. E. (1981) J. mol. Biol., 153, 95CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Tennent, D. L. and McMillin, D. R. (1979) J. Am. chem. Soc., 101, 2307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Thamann, T. J., Frank, P., Willis, L. J. and Loehr, T. M. (1982) Proc. nat. Acad. Sci., 79, 6396CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Tullius, T. D., Frank, P. and Hodgson, K. (1978) Proc. nat. Acad. Sci., 75, 4069CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Tobari, J. and Harada, Y. (1981) Bioehem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 101, 502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Ugurbil, K. and Bersohn, R. (1977) Biochemistry, 16, 3016CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Ugurbil, K., Norton, R. S., Allerhand, A. and Bersohn, R. (1977) Biochemistry, 16, 886CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Ulrich, E. L. and Markley, J. C. (1978) Coordination Chem. Rev., 27, 109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Vickery, L. E. (1971) Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Santa BarbaraGoogle Scholar
  125. Wherland, S. and Pecht, I. (1978) Biochemistry, 17, 2585CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Wilson, M. T., Greenwood, C., Brunori, M. and Antonini, E. (1975) Biochem. J., 145, 449CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. Wood, P. M. (1978) Eur. J. Biochem., 87, 9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Woodruff, W. H., Norton, K. A., Swanson, B. I. and Fry, H. A. (1983) J. Am. chem. Soc., 105, 657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Yoshizaki, F., Sugimara, Y. and Shimokoriyama, M. (1981) J. Biochem., 89, 1533PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The contributors 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elinor T. Adman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations