Advertisement

Abstract

A sphere of influence is a determinate region within which a single external power exerts a predominant influence, which limits the independence or freedom of action of political entities within it.

Keywords

Buffer Zone Great Power Influence Power Political Entity International Order 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes and References

  1. 1.
    See G.W. Rutherford, ‘Spheres of influence: an aspect of semi-suzerainty’, American Journal of International Law, vol. 20, no.2 (1926) pp. 300–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G.N. Curzon, Frontiers, The Romanes Lecture 1907 (London: Clarendon, 1907) p. 42.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    G.N. Curzon, Russia in Central Asia in 1889 and the Anglo-Russian Question (London: Frank Cass, 1967) p. 326.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sir Charles Lucas, The Partition and Colonization of Africa (Oxford: Clarendon, 1922) p. 97.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M.F. Lindley, The Acquisition and Government of Backward Territory in International Law (New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969; repr from 1926 ed) p. 209.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    F.D. Lugard, The Dual Mandate (London: Blackwood, 1923) p. 12.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Scott-Keltie, The Partition of Africa (London: Edward Stanford, 1893) p. 267.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hannis Taylor, A Treatise on International Law (Chicago: Callaghan, 1901) p. 271.Google Scholar
  9. 11.
    L. Oppenheim, International Law: a Treatise (London: Longmans Green, 1947), vol. 1, p. 513.Google Scholar
  10. 12.
    J.A. Hobson, Imperialism: a Study (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1972) andGoogle Scholar
  11. V.I. Lenin, Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism, A Popular Outline (New York: International Publishers, 1977) p. 119.Google Scholar
  12. 13.
    J. Joll, Europe Since 1870, An International History (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976) p. 89.Google Scholar
  13. 14.
    A.J.P. Taylor, Germany’s First Bid for Colonies 1884–1885: a Move in Bismarck’s European Policy (London: Macmillan, 1938) p. 6.Google Scholar
  14. 15.
    The New Cambridge Modern History, ed. by F.H. Hinsley (Cambridge University Press, 1962) vol. XI, p. 607. See also R. Robinson and J. Gallagher, Africa and the Victorians — The Official Mind of Imperialism (London: Macmillan, 1970).Google Scholar
  15. 17.
    E. Hertslet, The Map of Africa by Treaty (London: Frank Cass, 1967), reprinted from the 1896 third edition, vol. III, p. 868, and British and Foreign State Papers, 1885–1886 (London: William Ridgway, 1893) vol. LXXVII, p. 1049.Google Scholar
  16. 19.
    E.L. Evans, The British in Tropical Africa, An Historical Outline (Cambridge University Press, 1929) p. 143.Google Scholar
  17. 22.
    R.A. Falk, ‘Zone II as a world order construct’, in J.N. Rosenau, V. Davis and M.A. East, The Analysis of International Politics, Essays in honour of Harold and Margaret Sprout (New York: The Free Press, 1972) pp. 189–90.Google Scholar
  18. 23.
    J.E. Schrecker, Imperialism and Chinese Nationalism, Germany in Shantung (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971) p. 33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 26.
    It was not merely that the sovereignty of so-called backward peoples was denied; in important cases they were regarded as being entirely beyond the pale of international law. The American envoy, Caleb Cushing, argued that as China did not recognize the ‘law of nations’, civilized states need not be bound by legal considerations in their dealings with China. See Tyler Dennett, Americans in Eastern Asia (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1941) p. 164.Google Scholar
  20. 28.
    B.E.C. Dugdale, Arthur James Balfour (London: Hutchinson, 1936) vol. 1, pp. 250–1.Google Scholar
  21. 33.
    G.F. Hudson, The Far East in World Politics (Oxford University Press, 1945) p. 105.Google Scholar
  22. 34.
    L.K. Young, British Policy in China, 1895–1902 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1970) p. 78.Google Scholar
  23. 35.
    Martin Wight, Power Politics (London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1949) pp. 50–1.Google Scholar
  24. 39.
    Alistair Lamb, Asian Frontiers (Melbourne: Cheshire, 1968) pp. 1–2.Google Scholar
  25. 40.
    Frederick Jackson Turner, ‘The significance of the frontier in American history’, in Frontier and Section: Selected Essays of Frederick Jackson Turner (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1961) p. 39.Google Scholar
  26. 41.
    A.J. Toynbee, A Study of History, abridgement by D.G. Somervell (London: Oxford University Press, 1962) pp. 111–12 and p. 116.Google Scholar
  27. 42.
    On the distinction between frontiers and boundaries, see Ladis D. Kristof, ‘The nature of frontiers and boundaries’ in W.A. Douglas Jackson (ed.), Politics and Geographic Relationships (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1964) pp. 134–44. Kristof points out that whereas ‘frontier’ is not a legal concept ‘boundary’ is, in that boundaries define the legal territorial limits of sovereign states.Google Scholar
  28. 43.
    H. Duncan Hall, Mandates, Dependencies and Trusteeship (London: Stevens, 1948) p. 3.Google Scholar
  29. 44.
    D.C.M. Platt, Finance, Trade, and Politics in British Foreign Policy (Oxford: Clarendon, 1968) pp. 220–4.Google Scholar
  30. For Persia, see also F. Kazemzadeh, Russia and Britain in Persia, 1864–1914 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968).Google Scholar
  31. 47.
    H.A. Gibbons, An Introduction to World Politics (New York: Century, 1923) p. 182.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Paul Ernest Keal 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Keal

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations