It is difficult to make a simple statement about Zola’s conception of the bourgeoisie, since his bourgeois world is not monolithic but a very heterogeneous social group. Moreover, bourgeois values transcend purely class distinctions.1 It is possible, however, to discern an underlying unity in Zola’s treatment of the bourgeoisie.


Germinal Bete 


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  1. 1.
    See Theodore Zeldin, France 1848–1945, I (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973), pp. 18–19.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Micheline Tison-Braun, La Crise de l’humanisme. Le Conflit de l’individu et de la société dans la littérature française moderne, I: 1890–1914 (Paris: Nizet, 1958), pp. 296–7.Google Scholar

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© Brian Nelson 1983

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