The two characteristics of education germane to this study are that it is a personal service and an international commodity. As Empire merged into Commonwealth the personal service aspect of education with its accompanying patron-client relationships declined in importance as an influence relative to the world commodity market aspects of education transactions. In both substance and theory the contemporary Commonwealth attempts to incorporate both. An evaluation of education as a function in the contemporary Commonwealth must begin with the old model and attempt to trace its modifications.


Depression Europe Income Expense Malaysia 


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© A. J. R. Groom and Paul Taylor 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruth Butterworth

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