There are many different motives for doing research and development. Scientists are hired by organisations or indulge in the trade themselves, to make money, to solve practical problems, to satisfy curiosity, to improve the lot of mankind, whether in health or riches, to maintain the defence of their country, to improve the environment or simply to support a desire for prestige — personal, corporate or national. But for whatever reason it is conducted, research and development has become a big business in recent years. In Great Britain it absorbs about 2.7 per cent of the Gross National Product and occupies over a third of all persons holding degrees in engineering, technology or science or nearly 60,000 (outside education).  Nowadays hardly any research is carried out by private individuals and so all this effort is contained within Research and Development departments, institutes or establishments of one sort or another. Each of these has to be managed and directed with the distinction between management and direction dependent on the size and environment of the working group. In general it is true that a group of graduates about 10–20 strong will need to be supervised by someone who will be at least partly involved in the management of the group in relation to higher policy.
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