Coexistence and diversity in Heteromyid rodents

  • M. L. Rosenzweig
Chapter

Abstract

David Lack’s interest in coexisting avian seed eaters was extraordinarily seminal. His work, Darwin’s Finches (1947), suggested that several species of this family might be avoiding competitive exclusion by virtue of their dissimilar beak sizes. A likely hypothesis seemed to be that each beak size is specialised for a particular range of seed sizes (Bowman, 1961). Theories have since been developed that explain how this might come about (see, for example, MacArthur and Pianka, 1966; Emlen, 1966). In general they may be summarised by noting that they all require a trade-off in adaptiveness: the phenotype that is well adapted to utilising one portion of a resource spectrum is, perforce, poorly adapted for other portions of it. In the case of granivores, this might mean that, for a bird of given size, hulling over-large seeds is too costly in time or energy, and small seeds are too unrewarding, to be profitable. MacArthur and MacArthur (1972) have shown that this is probably true for certain American birds.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arnold, L. W. (1942). Notes on the life history of the Sand pocket mice. J. Mammal., 23, 339–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beatley, J. C. (1969). Dependence of desert rodents on winter annuals and precipitation. Ecology, 50, 721–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blair, W. (1937). Burrow and food habits of the Prairie pocket mouse. J. Mammal, 18, 188–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowman, R. I. (1961). Morphological differentiation and adaptation in the Galapagos finches. Univ. Cal. Publ. Zool., 58, 1–302.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, J. H. (1975). Geographical ecology of desert rodents, in “Ecology and Evolution of Communities” (eds. M. L. Cody and J. M. Diamond.) Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 315–341.Google Scholar
  6. Brown, J. H. and Lieberman, G. A. (1973). Resource utilisation and coexistence of seed eating desert rodent in sand dune habitats. Ecology, 54, 788–797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dayton, P. K. (1973). Two cases of resource partitioning in an intertidal community: making the right prediction for the wrong reasons. Am. Nat., 107, 662–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dunham, M. (1968). A comparative food habit study of two species of kangaroo rats, Dipodomys ordii and Dipodomys merriami. M.S. thesis, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. 25 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Emlen, J. M. (1966). The role of time and energy in food preference. Am. Nat., 100, 611–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fretwell, S. D. and Lucas, H. L., Jr (1970). On territorial behaviour and other factors influencing habitat distribution in birds. I. Theoretical development. Acta Biotheor., 19, 16–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Franz, C. E., Reichman, O. J. and Van de Graeff, K. M. (1973). Diet, food preferences and reproductive cycles of some desert rodents. Research Memorandum, RM 73–74.Google Scholar
  12. Lack, D. L. (1947). Darwin’s Finches. Cambridge University Press, London.Google Scholar
  13. Levins, R. (1962). Theory of fitness in a heterogeneous environment. I. The fitness set and adaptive function. Am. Nat., 96, 361–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Levins, R. (1968). Evolution in Changing Environments, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  15. Kenagy, G. J. (1972). Saltbush leaves: excision of hyper-saline tissue by a kangaroo rat. Science, 178, 1094–1096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. MacArthur, R. H. and MacArthur, D. (1972). Efficiency and preference at a bird feeder. J. Ariz. Acad. Sci., 7, 3–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. MacArthur, R. H., Recher, H. and Cody, M. (1966). On the relation between habitat selection and species diversity. Am. Nat., 100, 319–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. MacArthur, R. H. and Levins, R. (1967). The limiting similarity, convergence and divergence of coexisting species. Am. Nat., 101, 377–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. MacArthur, R. H. and Pianka, E. R. (1966). On optimal use of a patchy environment. Am. Nat., 100, 603–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. May, R. M. and MacArthur, R. H. (1972). Niche overlap as a function of environmental variability. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 69, 1109–1113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Monson, G. (1943). Food habits of the Bannertailed Kangaroo Rat in Arizona. J. Wildl. Mngmt., 7, 98–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Reynolds, H. G. (1950). Relation of Merriam Kangaroo Rats to range vegetation in southern Arizona. Ecology, 31, 456–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Reynolds, H. G. and Haskell, H. S. (1949). Life history notes on Price and Bailey Pocket Mice of southern Arizona. J. Mammal., 301, 150–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rosenzweig, M. L. (1973). Habitat selection experiments with a pair of coexisting heteromyid rodent species. Ecology, 54, 111–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rosenzweig, M. L. (1974). On the evolution of habitat selection. In Proc. 1st Int. Congr. Ecology, 401–404.Google Scholar
  26. Rosenzweig, M. L., Smigel, B. and Kraft, A. (1975). Patterns of food, space and diversity, in Rodents in Desert Environments. (eds. I. Prakash and P. Ghosh), Monographiae Biologicae, 28, Dr W. Junk, by, The Hague. 241–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rosenzweig, M. L., and Sterner, P. (1970). Population ecology of desert rodent communities: body size and seed-husking as bases for heteromyid coexistence. Ecology, 51, 217–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rosenzweig, M. L. and Winakur, J. (1969). Population ecology of desert rodent communities: habitat and environmental complexity. Ecology, 50, 558–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schroder, G., and Rosenzweig, M. L. (1975). Perturbation analysis of competition and overlap in habitat utilisation between Dipodomys ordii and Dipodomys merriami. Oecologia, 19, 9–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shaw, W. T. (1934). The ability of the giant kangaroo rat as a harvester and storer of seeds. J. Mammal., 15, 275–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sherbrooke, W. C. (1976). Differential acceptance of toxic jojoba seed (Simmondsia chinensis) by four Sonoran desert heteromyid rodents. Ecology, 57, 596–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Smigel, B. W. and Rosenzweig, M. L. (1974). Seed selection in Dipodomys merriami and Perognathus penicillatus. Ecology, 55, 329–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Went, F. W. and Westergaard, M. (1949). Ecology of desert plants. III. Development of plants in the Death Valley National Monument, California. Ecology, 30, 26–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The contributors 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. L. Rosenzweig

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations