Structural Transformation and Rural Development
Rural development is a matter of increasing concern for development economists, policy-makers in developing countries and aid agency officials. Differential rates of growth in urban and rural areas in many developing countries have tended to produce an urban—rural polarisation of income. Apart from the political implications of this, a pattern of growth which by-passes the great majority of rural people makes a mockery of the social goals of development. On the one hand, the organisation of production of modern enterprises in the developing countries’ fast-growing urban industrial areas is expressly modelled on that of developed countries, and the working and living conditions of many urban residents approach those of rich countries. On the other hand, for the rural population, work- and life-styles remain largely traditional. While data are sparse and often inconsistent, many people have concluded that rural malnutrition and destitution in South Asia were less pervasive and severe in the pre-colonial period, and even later, than they are today ‘ if only because opportunities for earning a living from agriculture have declined.
KeywordsMigration Rubber Income Marketing Monopoly
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