• F. Bastian


Born in 1660, the year of Charles II’s restoration, Daniel Defoe was to outlive the same five monarchs as the Vicar of Bray, and to experience similar problems of survival in changing times. If, near the end of his life in 1731, he had looked back on its many vicissitudes, there is no doubt what he would have considered its highest peak — his service for King William III. After the death of his royal master in 1702, his remaining years were in many ways an anti-climax. Ironically, it is these years that have been most fully treated by his biographers, while his earlier life has been comparatively neglected.


Graphical Information Internal Evidence Vicarious Experience Creative Writing Passive Observer 
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Notes and References

  1. 1.
    J. R. Sutherland, ‘Some Early Troubles of Daniel Defoe’, Review of English Studies, ix (1935) 275–90.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    F. Bastian, ‘Daniel Defoe and the Dorking District’, Surrey Archaeological Collections, vol. lv (1958) 41–64.Google Scholar
  3. 8.
    F. Bastian, ‘James Foe Merchant, Father of Daniel Defoe’, N&Q, ccix (March 1964) 82–6.Google Scholar
  4. 9.
    G. A. Aitken (ed.), Serious Reflections during the Life and Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe ( London, 1895 ) Preface, pp. ix–xiii.Google Scholar
  5. 10.
    J. Donald Crowley (ed.), Robinson Crusoe (Oxford, 1972) pp. 177–9; Tour, ii, 168–71.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© F. Bastian 1981

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  • F. Bastian

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