Sulfur Oxides and Particulates From the Combustion of Coal and Oil

  • Merril Eisenbud


When coal or oil are burned, the products of combustion include carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, several forms of nitrogen oxides, and a mixture of dusts, fumes, and smokes that together are called the particulate emissions. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and the particulates are by far the most important of these waste products from the point of view of human health. Huge quantities of these fuels are burned for space heating in the northeastern and central regions of the United States, and for power generation throughout the country. Sulfur dioxide is also produced copiously by smelting and by volcanos.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Magee, E. M., H. J. Hall and G. M. Varga. “Potential Pollutants in Fossil Fuels,” Environmental Protection Agency Report No. EPA-R263–249 (June, 1973).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Goldstein, H. L. and C. W. Siegmund. “Influence of Heavy Fuel Oil Composition and Boiler Combustion Conditions on Primary Particulates,” Environ. Sci. & Tech. 10: 1109 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Amdur, M. O. “The Influence of Aerosols upon the Respiratory Response of Guinea Pigs to Sulfur Dioxide,” Amer. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. 18: 149–155 (1957).Google Scholar
  4. 6.
    Auliciems, A. and I. Burton. “Trends in Smoke Concentrations before and after the Clean Air Act of 1956,” Atmospheric Environment 7: 10631070 (1973).Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    Marmor, M. “Heat Wave Mortality in New York City, 1949 to 1970,” Arch. Env. Hlth. 30: 130–136 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 11.
    Beuchley, R. W. et al. “SO2 Levels and Perturbations in Mortality, a Study in the New York-New Jersey Metroplis,” Arch. Environ. Hlth. 27: 134–37 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 12.
    Schimmel, Herbert and Leonard Greenburg. “A Study of the Relation of Pollution to Mortality: New York City, 1064–1968,” Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 22 (8): 607 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 14.
    Schimmel, Herbert and T. J. Murawski. “The Relation of Air Pollution to Mortality,” J. of Occup. Med. 18: 316–333 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 15.
    Zupan, J. M. “The Distribution of Air Quality in the New York Region,” Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, Md. (1973).Google Scholar
  10. 16.
    Hammer, D. I., F. J. Miller, A. G. Stead and C. G. Haynes. “Air Pollution and Childhood Lower Respiratory Disease: Exposure to Sulfur Oxides and Particulate Matter in New York, 1972,” presented by Hammer at the American Medical Association Air Pollution Medical Research Conference (December 5–6, 1974 ), San Francisco, Cal. (1974).Google Scholar
  11. 21.
    Greenfield, Attaway and Tyler, Inc. “A Detailed Critique of the Sulfur Emission/Sulfate Health Effects Issue.” Prepared for the Edison Electric Institute and the Electric Utility Industry Clean Air Coordinating Committee (April 22, 1975 ).Google Scholar
  12. 22.
    Tabershaw/Cooper Associates, Inc. “A Critical Evaluation of Current Research Regarding Health Criteria for Sulfur Oxides.” Prepared for the Federal Energy Administration (April 11, 1975 ).Google Scholar
  13. 23.
    Higgins, I. T. T. and B. G. Ferris. “Epidemiology of Sulphur Oxides and Particles,” in: Proceedings of the Conference on Health Effects of Air Pollutants, Serial No. 93–15, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. ( November, 1973 ), p. 247.Google Scholar
  14. 25a.
    Lave, L. B. and E. P. Seskin. “Air Pollution and Human Health,” Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, Md. (1977).Google Scholar
  15. 26.
    Likens, Gene E. “Acid Precipitation,” C & EN Special Report, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. (November 22, 1976 ).Google Scholar
  16. 27.
    Devitt, T. W., L. V. Yerino, T. C. Ponder and C. J. Chatlynne. “Estimating Costs of Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems for Utility Boilers,” J. Air Poll. Control Assn. 26: 204–215 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 28.
    Yeager, K. E. “Stacks vs. Scrubbers,” in: EPRI Research Progress Report FF-3, Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, Calif. ( July, 1975 ), p. 2.Google Scholar
  18. 29.
    Hammond, Allen L. “Coal Research (II): Gasification Faces an Uncertain Future,” Science 193: 750–753 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 30.
    American Petroleum Institute. “Basic Petroleum Data Book,” American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C. (December, 1975 ).Google Scholar
  20. 31.
    Scott, R. W. “Estimated Cost of Desulfurizing Fuel Oil,” personal communication from Coordinator for Conservation Technology, Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Florham Park, N.J. (August 6, 1976 ).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© New York University 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Merril Eisenbud

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations