Advertisement

Low Pay amongst Women—the Facts

  • P. J. Sloane
  • W. S. Siebert

Abstract

In this paper low pay amongst women is taken to refer to those whose pay falls below the level of the lowest decile of the distribution of employment incomes of full-time manual men. A major source of information on the distribution of employment income is the New Earnings Survey, and this paper concentrates in the main on the results of the April 1976 survey, supplemented where necessary by other sources including the General Household Survey. However a number of features of the NES survey must be borne in mind in interpreting these results:
  1. (i)

    The information relates to a single pay period and is not necessarily representative of pay over a longer period. It generally excludes the value of payments in kind and income received from other concurrent employment.

     
  2. (ii)

    The number of variables for which cross-classification is available is small,1 and in particular it contains no information on the level of education of the employees in the sample.

     
  3. (iii)

    According to the Office of Manpower Economics 2 it is deficient in terms of the response from small employers. Since such employers tend to be low paying, and women tend to be over-represented here (see below), this might cause us to over-estimate average female pay.

     
  4. (iv)

    Occupational categories are broad, so that women are likely to be classified as being in the same occupational group as men, although differences in the work are such as to amount to a material difference under the terms of the Equal Pay Act 1970.

     

Keywords

Manual Woman Collective Agreement Earning Distribution Hourly Earning Weekly Earning 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. J. T. Addison, ‘The Composition of Manual Worker Earnings’, British Journal of Industrial Relations (March 1976).Google Scholar
  2. R. D. Barron and G. M. Norris, ‘Sexual Divisions and the Dual Labour Market’, paper presented to the Conference on Sexual Divisions in Society, British Sociological Association (1974).Google Scholar
  3. B. Bergmann, ‘The Effect of White Incomes on Discrimination in Employment’, Journal of Political Economy, 79 (1971).Google Scholar
  4. B. Chiplin and P. J. Sloane, ‘Male/Female Earnings Differences, a Further Analysis’, British Journal of Industrial Relations (March 1976a).Google Scholar
  5. B. Chiplin and P. J. Sloane, Sex Discrimination in the Labour Market (London: Macmillan, 1976(b)).Google Scholar
  6. B. Chiplin and P. J. Sloane, ‘Sex Differences and the Inter-Industry Wage Structure for Manual Workers in UK Manufacturing’, Paisley College of Technology Working Paper, no. 21 (June 1976 c).Google Scholar
  7. Department of Employment, Women and Work. A Statistical Survey Manpower Paper, no. 9 (1974).Google Scholar
  8. P. Glucklich et al., ‘Equal Pay Experiences in 25 firms’, Department of Employment Gazette (December 1976).Google Scholar
  9. D. Hamermesh, ‘White-Collar Unions, Blue-Collar Unions, and Wages in Manufacturing’, Industrial and Labour Relations Review (1970/1).Google Scholar
  10. N. Jones, ‘Equal Pay and Pay Structure in Engineering Establishments’, SSCR Symposium into Research into Equal Pay and Equality of Opportunity in Labour Markets, Bath University, School of Management (17–18 March 1976 ).Google Scholar
  11. J. Marquand, ‘Which are the Low Paid Workers?’ British Journal of Industrial Relations, V (1967).Google Scholar
  12. National Board for Prices and Incomes, Report no. 169, General Problems of Low Pay, Cmnd., 4648 (April 1971).Google Scholar
  13. S. J. Nickell, ‘An Analysis of the Industrial Wage Structure for Both Men and Women’, Unpublished manuscript, London School of Economics (August 1974).Google Scholar
  14. O. Robinson and J. Wallace, ‘Equal Pay Legislation in a Low Pay Industry’, paper presented at an SSRC Symposium into Equal Pay and Equal Opportunity, op. cit.Google Scholar
  15. O. Robinson and J. Wallace,, ‘National Wage Rates and Earnings Composition: A Note on Potential Sources of Sex Discrimination in Pay’, British Journal of Industrial Relations (March 1977).Google Scholar
  16. Royal Commission on Income Distribution and Wealth, Selected Evidence Submitted to the Royal Commission, Report no. 1: Initial Report on the Standing Reference, HMSO (1976).Google Scholar
  17. A. J. W. Thomson, C. Mulvey and M. Farbman, ‘Bargaining Structure and Relative Earnings in Great Britain’, British Journal of Industrial Relations (July 1977).Google Scholar
  18. E. G. Whybrew, Overtime Working in Britain, Research Paper no. 9, Royal Commission on Trade Unions and Employers Associations (1968).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. J. Sloane
  • W. S. Siebert

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations