Socialisation within the Kolkhoz
The three major types of kolkhoz—the commune, the artel and the association for joint cultivation of land (the TOZ or SOZ)—were defined primarily by the extent to which their means of production were socialised. In the commune, all land was supposed to be worked in common and all animals, implements and production buildings were collectively owned; in many communes members also shared living quarters and prepared and ate their food together. In the intermediate type of kolkhoz, the artel, arable farming was socialised: thus land was worked in common, except for the household plot (usad’ba), and draught animals and agricultural implements were owned collectively. Other branches of agriculture, however, remained partly or wholly private. In the TOZ, some land was worked in common, and major agricultural machines, if any, were owned collectively, but all animals, including draught animals, and most implements, remained in private possession.
KeywordsIncome Assure Expense Manure Fishing
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