• S. Encel


Communications is a prime example of the links between physical technology and social organisation (or social technology). The social technologies of speech, language, and writing are basic to the communication process. Language may, in fact, be described as the essential social technology which makes group existence possible. The development of communication methods could plausibly be used as the basis of a historical sequence superior to the primary-school chronology of Old Stone Age, New Stone Age, Bronze and Iron ages. An alternative, based on communication, might run through rudimentary speech, grammatical speech, written language, mathematical notation, printing and mass literacy, to the age of mechanisation and electrification of communications media. The growth of modern cities, in particular, is bound up with mechanical and electrical means of transport and communication, and coincides closely with the revolution in these two related activities which started around the year 1830.


Conference Television Telecommunication Service Social Technology Postal Service Rand Corporation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Baran, P. and Greenberger, M. (1967), Urban Node in the Information Network, Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.Google Scholar
  2. Baran, P. (1970), Potential Market Demand for Two-Way Information Services, Menlo Park: Institute for the Future.Google Scholar
  3. Bray, W. J. and Reid, A. A. L. (1975), ‘Telecommunications Developments in the United Kingdom and their Social Implications’, IEEE Transactions, vol. COM-23, no. 10.Google Scholar
  4. Buchanan, C. and associates (1972), Transport, the Urban Environment, and Telecommunications 1971–2001. British Post Office, Long Range Studies Division, Report no. 1002.Google Scholar
  5. Busignies, H. (1971), ‘Trends and Future of Telecommunications’, Signal, November–December.Google Scholar
  6. Business Week (1974), ‘The Revolution in the Phone Business’, 6 November 1974, pp. 64–74.Google Scholar
  7. Cetron, M. (1973), Impact of Advanced Telecommunications Technology on the American City, Washington D.C.: Department of Housing and Urban Development.Google Scholar
  8. Cherry, C. (1971), World Communications: Threat or Promise? New York: Wiley-Interscience.Google Scholar
  9. Conrath, D. W. and Thompson, G. B. (1973), ‘Communication Technology. A Societal Perspective’, Journal of Communication, 23, pp. 47–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. DATAR (1969), Schéma Directeur des Télécommunications, Paris: DATAR, p. 46.Google Scholar
  11. Dickson, E. and Bowers, R. (1973), The Video-Telephone: A New Era in Telecommunications, New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  12. Dordick, H. S. et al. (1973), Telecommunications in Urban Development, Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.Google Scholar
  13. Elton, M. (1973), ‘Developments in Communications: Implications for Planners’ Conference paper on Transportation and the Environment, University of Southampton.Google Scholar
  14. Gabor, D. (1970), Innovations, London: O.U.P.Google Scholar
  15. Goldhamer, H. and Westrum, R. (1970), The Social Effects of Communication Technology, Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.Google Scholar
  16. Information Canada (1971), Instant World, Ottawa: Queen’s Printer.Google Scholar
  17. Jones, M. V. (1973), ‘How cable television may change our lives’, The Futurist, October, pp. 196–201.Google Scholar
  18. Katzman, N. (1974), ‘The impact of communications technology’, Journal of Communication, 24.Google Scholar
  19. Lamberton, D. M. (ed.) (1971), The Economics of Information and Knowledge, Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  20. Lamberton, D. M. (1971), ‘Structure and growth of communications services’, in Tucker, K. A. (ed.), The Economics of the Australian Service Sector, London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  21. Lewis, C. B. (1973), Personal communication.Google Scholar
  22. Little, Arthur D. (1970), World Communications Study, Boston: Arthur D. Little Inc.Google Scholar
  23. Machlup, F. (1962), The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States, Princeton: Princeton U.P.Google Scholar
  24. Maddox, B. (1972), Beyond Babel, London: André Deutsch.Google Scholar
  25. National Academy of Engineering (1971), Communications Technology for Urban Development, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  26. Newstead, I. A. (1973), Report on Proposed National Telecommunications Plan, Melbourne: Australian Post Office.Google Scholar
  27. Parker, E. B. (1975), ‘Social Implications of a Computer/ Telecommunications System’, conference paper on Computer/ Telecommunications Policy, Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  28. Parker, E. B. and Dunn, D. A. (1972), ‘Information technology: Its social potential’, Science, 176, p. 1392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Plan et Prospectives (1970), Postes et Telecommunications, Paris: Armand Colin.Google Scholar
  30. Pool, I. de S., (ed.) (1977), The Social Impact of the Telephone, Boston: M.I.T. Press.Google Scholar
  31. Porat, M. U. (1976), ‘Defining the information sector’, Bulletin of the American society for Information Science, 2, pp. 34–5.Google Scholar
  32. Reid, A. (1971), ‘What telecommunication implies’, New Society, 30 December 1971.Google Scholar
  33. Short, J. et al. (1976), The Social Psychology of Telecommunications, London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  34. Telecom 2000 (1976), An Exploration of the Long-Term Development of Telecommunications in Australia, Melbourne: Australian Government Publications Service.Google Scholar
  35. Thorngren, B. (1970), ‘How contact systems affect regional development’, Environment and Planning, 2, pp. 409–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tyler, M. (1973), ‘Developing Communications for the Future’, Unpublished paper, Long Range Studies Division, British Post Office, London.Google Scholar
  37. Westin, A. F. (1967), Privacy and Freedom, New York: Atheneum.Google Scholar
  38. Wion, F. W. (1978), ‘Do Engineers Know Everything’. Conference paper, Institution of Engineers, Australia.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Policy Research Unit, Sussex 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Encel

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations