• Shahid Javed Burki


On 20 December 1971, Pakistan’s second military government handed over the country’s administration to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, chairman of the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP). On 5 July 1977, the military, after deposing Bhutto, reassumed political and administrative control over the country. During the sixty-seven months that Bhutto was in power — first as President and later as Prime Minister — he introduced some important changes in Pakistan’s society, in its economy and in its political system. The main purpose of this study is to present an analysis of these changes — why they were introduced and what were their consequences.


Prime Minister Political Support Military Regime United Nations Security Council Flexible Finger 
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  1. 1.
    Interview given to Oriana Fallaci and reproduced by her in her book, Interview with History (New York: Liveright Publishing Corporation, 1976), pp. 182–209. The quotation is from p. 209.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dilip Mukerjee, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto: Quest for Power (Delhi: Vikas Publishing, 1972).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Political Situation in Pakistan (Lahore: Pakistan People’s Party, 1969), passim.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    For the belief that Bhutto was serious in bringing back Western-style democracy to Pakistan see Anwar H. Syed, ‘The Pakistan People’s Party: Phases One and Two’, in Lawrence Ziring, Ralph Braibanti and W. Howard Wriggins (eds), Pakistan: The Long View (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1977), pp. 70–116.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pakistan People’s Party, The Election Manifesto (Lahore: Pakistan People’s Party, 1970).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, The Great Tragedy (Karachi: Vision Publications, 1971).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Erik Erikson, Gandhi’s Truth: On the Origins of Militant Non-Violence (New York: W. W. Norton, 1969) is perhaps the best work on an Asian leader.Google Scholar

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© Shahid Javed Burki 1980

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  • Shahid Javed Burki

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