The Development of Underdevelopment: Mercantilism, Colonialism and Neo-colonialism

  • Ankie M. M. Hoogvelt


In Part One of this book we studied processes of societal evolution and change on a very abstract plane. From a standpoint of pure sociological theory, societal evolution presents a process of increasing structural differentiation of the functions performed by society. Thus, from a sociological perspective, structurally complex societies are more developed than structurally simple societies.


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Notes and References

  1. A. G. Frank, Sociology of Development and the Underdevelopment of Sociology (London: Pluto Press, 1971) p. 41.Google Scholar
  2. V. I. Lenin, Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1916); reprinted Moscow, Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1920. This work is especially relevant to an understanding of the development of underdevelopment in the period of colonialism.Google Scholar
  3. P. A. Baran, The Political Economy of Growth, 4th edn (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1967); see especially ch. v: ‘On the Roots of Backwardness’.Google Scholar
  4. K. Griffin, Underdevelopment in Spanish America (London: Allen & Unwin, 1969) p. 34.Google Scholar
  5. For an entertaining discussion of these essential instruments of European overseas expansion, see C. M. Cipolla, European Culture and Overseas Expansion (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1970).Google Scholar
  6. R. Mukherjee, The Rise and Fall of the East India Company, 2nd edn (Berlin: Verlag, 1958) p. 36.Google Scholar
  7. Cf. W. W. Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth (Cambridge University Press, 1969) p. 41.Google Scholar
  8. Cf. G. Pendle, A History of Latin America (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1971) p. 66.Google Scholar
  9. See P. D. Curtin, The Atlantic Slave Trade; A Census (University of Wisconsin Press, 1969) table i, p. 5.Google Scholar
  10. Cf. A. Moorehead, The Fatal Impact (London: Hamilton, 1966) part t on the decimation of the population of the South Pacific Islands through the introduction of alien diseases.Google Scholar
  11. See also Kingsley Davis, The Population of India and Pakistan (Princeton University Press, 1951) ch. 6.Google Scholar
  12. Cf. E. Durkheim, The Division of Labour in Society (London: Macmillan, 1933).Google Scholar
  13. D. C. M. Platt, Latin America and British Trade, 1806–1914 (London: Black, 1972) pp. 14–15. Furthermore, Platt observes that ‘Lancashire was never able entirely to displace the hand-loom weaver; the hand-loom industry was still supplying at least 25% of the cloth consumed in India at the beginning of the twentieth century’, p. 13.Google Scholar
  14. Cf. J. Hatch, Nigeria: A History (London: Secker & Warburg, 1971) p. 86.Google Scholar
  15. H. Magdoff, The Age of Imperialism (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1969).Google Scholar
  16. J. de Castro, The Geography of Hunger (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1952).Google Scholar
  17. L. Pearson et al., Partners in Development (London: Pall Mall, 1970) p. 81.Google Scholar
  18. Cf. I. Illich, ‘Outwitting the Developed Countries’, in New York Review of Books (6 Nov 1969); reprinted in Underdevelopment and Development; the Third World Today, ed. H. Bernstein (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973) pp. 357 ff.Google Scholar
  19. R. Prebisch, The Economic Development of Latin America and its Principal Problems (New York: United Nations, 1950). See also Towards a New Trade Policy for Development, Report by the Secretary-General of UNCTAD (United Nations, 1964 ).Google Scholar
  20. Cf. P. Jalee, The Third World in World Economy (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1969) translated by M. Klopper, p. 73.Google Scholar
  21. See also P. Streeten, ‘The Kind of Self-help Poor Nations Need’, New Society (13 Apr 1972) p. 60.Google Scholar
  22. Each of these four points were also made by H. Singer, ‘The Commodity Boom and Developing Countries’, New Society (30 Aug 1973).Google Scholar
  23. A. Emmanuel, ‘Current Myths of Development’, New Left Review, 85 (May-June 1974) p. 65.Google Scholar
  24. H. B. Chenery, ‘Growth and Structural Change’, Finance and Development, vol. 8, no. 3 (Sep 1971) pp. 25–6. Bill Warren (see n. 47) largely bases his argument on Chenery’s statistics.Google Scholar
  25. M. Barrat Brown, The Economics of Imperialism (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974) p. 207.Google Scholar
  26. R. Vernon, Sovereignty at Bay (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973) p. 71.Google Scholar
  27. C. V. Vaitsos, ‘Bargaining and the Distribution of Returns in the Purchase of Technology by Developing Countries’, in Underdevelopment and Development, ed. H. Bernstein (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973) pp. 315–22, this quote on p. 319.Google Scholar
  28. C. Tugendhat, The Multinationals (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973) p. 170.Google Scholar
  29. C. V. Vaitsos, ‘Patents Revisited, Their Function in Developing Countries’, Journal of Development Studies, vol. 9, no. 1 (Oct 1972) pp. 72–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Ankie M. M. Hoogvelt 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ankie M. M. Hoogvelt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Sociological StudiesUniversity of SheffieldUK

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