Advertisement

Environment and human gender identity

  • Jon K. Meyer
  • Carol Dupkin
Part of the Biology and Environment book series (SBES)

Abstract

The term ‘gender’ is sometimes used loosely as a synonym for biological sex. For example, a person may be referred to as being of the ‘male gender’, meaning that he is a man with the anatomical and physiological features accompanying that condition. In psychiatry, however, gender has a special connotation. In this special sense, gender is ordinarily consonant with biological sex, and so appears to be a function of it. In fact, however, psychological gender may be remarkably free from biological constraint.

Keywords

Body Image Gender Identity Sexual Identity Gender Dysphoria Gender Identity Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abelin, E. (1971). The role of the father in the separation-individuation process, in Separation-Individuation (ed. J. McDevitt and C. Settlage ), International Universities Press, New York, p. 229Google Scholar
  2. Baramki, T. (1974). Embryology of the urogenital system in man and genetic factors in intersex problems and transsexualism, in Intersex and Gender Identity Disorders (ed. J. Meyer), special issue of Clinics in Plastic Surgery, 1, 201Google Scholar
  3. Easson, W. M. (1966). Psychopathological environmental reaction to congenital defect, J. nerv. ment. Dis., 142, 453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ehrhardt, A., Epstein, R. and Money, J. (1968). Fetal androgens and female gender identity in the early-treated adrenogenital syndrome, Johns Hopkins med. J., 122, 160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ehrhardt, A., Evers, K. and Money, J. (1968). Influence of androgen on some aspects of sexually dimorphic behavior in women with the late-treated adrenogenital syndrome, Johns Hopkins med. J., 123, 115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Erikson, E. (1959). Identity and the life cycle, Psychol. Issues, 1, no. 1, Monograph 1Google Scholar
  7. Greenacre, P. (1953). Certain relationships between fetishism and faulty development of the body image, Psychoanal. Study Child, 8, 79Google Scholar
  8. Hampson, J. L. and Hampson, J. G. (1961). The ontogenesis of sexual behavior in man, in Sex and Internal Secretions, Vol. II (ed. W. Young), Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, p. 1401Google Scholar
  9. Harlow, H. (1959). Love in infant monkeys, Scient. Am., 200, 68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Harlow, H. (1960). Primary affectional patterns in primates, Am. J. Orthopsychiat., 30, 676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Harlow, H. and Harlow, W. (1962a). The effect of rearing conditions on behavior, Bull. Menninger Clin., 26, 213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Harlow, H. and Harlow, W. (1962b). Social deprivation in monkeys, Scient. Am., 207, 136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Harlow, H. and Harlow, W. (1965). The affectional systems, in Behavior of Nonhuman Primates, Vol. II (ed. A. Schrier, H. Harlow and F. Stollnitz), Academic Press, New York, p. 287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kleeman, J. (1971). The establishment of core gender identity in normal girls, parts I and II, Archs sex. Behay., 1, 103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mahler, M. (1968). On Human Symbiosis and the Vicissitudes of Individuation, Vol. I, Infantile Psychosis, International Universities Press, New York, pp. 7–31Google Scholar
  16. Mahler, M., Pine, F. and Bergman, A. (1975). The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant, Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Meyer, E. (1964). Psychiatric aspects of plastic surgery, in Reconstructive Plastic Surgery, Vol. I (ed. J. Converse ), Saunders, Philadelphia, p. 365Google Scholar
  18. Meyer, J. (1974). Clinical variants among applicants for sex reassignment, Archs sex. Behay., 3, 527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Meyer, J. (1980). Paraphilia, in Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 3rd edn (ed. H. Kaplan, A. Freedman and B. Sadock), Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, in pressGoogle Scholar
  20. Meyer, J. and Hoopes, J. (1974). The gender dysphoria syndromes: a position statement on so-called ‘transsexualism’, Plast. reconstruct. Surg., 54, 444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Money, J. (1972). Identification and complementation in the differentiation of gender identity, Dan. med. Bull., 19, 265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Money, J. and Ehrhardt, A. (1971). Fetal hormones and the brain: effect on sexual dimorphism of behavior—a review, Archs sex. Behay., 1, 241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nielsen, J. (1972). Gender role-identity and sexual behavior in persons with sex chromosome aberrations, Dan. med. Bull., 19, 269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Schechter, M. D. (1961). The orthopedically handicapped child. Archs gen. Psychiat., 4, 247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Seay, B. and Harlow, H. (1965). Maternal separation in the Rhesus monkey, J. nerv. ment. Dis., 140, 434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Seay, B., Hansen, E. and Harlow, H. (1962). Mother — infant separation in monkeys, J. Child Psychol. Psychiat., 3, 123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Spitz, R. (1965). The First Year of Life, International Universities Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Stoller, R. (1972). Impact of new advances in sex research on psychoanalytic theory, Dan. med. Bull., 19, 287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Theilgaard, A. (1972). Cognitive style and gender role in persons with sex chromosome aberrations, Dan. med. Bull., 19, 276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Van Lawick-Goodall, J. (1973). The behavior of chimpanzees in their natural habitat, Am. J. Psychiat., 130, 1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Winnicott, D. (1965). The Maturational Processes and the Facilitating Environment, International Universities Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Yalom, I., Green, R. and Fisk, N. (1973). Prenatal exposure to female hormones, Archs gen. Psychiat., 28, 554CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Contributors 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jon K. Meyer
  • Carol Dupkin

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations