Environment and human gender identity
The term ‘gender’ is sometimes used loosely as a synonym for biological sex. For example, a person may be referred to as being of the ‘male gender’, meaning that he is a man with the anatomical and physiological features accompanying that condition. In psychiatry, however, gender has a special connotation. In this special sense, gender is ordinarily consonant with biological sex, and so appears to be a function of it. In fact, however, psychological gender may be remarkably free from biological constraint.
KeywordsBody Image Gender Identity Sexual Identity Gender Dysphoria Gender Identity Disorder
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Abelin, E. (1971). The role of the father in the separation-individuation process, in Separation-Individuation (ed. J. McDevitt and C. Settlage ), International Universities Press, New York, p. 229Google Scholar
- Baramki, T. (1974). Embryology of the urogenital system in man and genetic factors in intersex problems and transsexualism, in Intersex and Gender Identity Disorders (ed. J. Meyer), special issue of Clinics in Plastic Surgery, 1, 201Google Scholar
- Erikson, E. (1959). Identity and the life cycle, Psychol. Issues, 1, no. 1, Monograph 1Google Scholar
- Greenacre, P. (1953). Certain relationships between fetishism and faulty development of the body image, Psychoanal. Study Child, 8, 79Google Scholar
- Hampson, J. L. and Hampson, J. G. (1961). The ontogenesis of sexual behavior in man, in Sex and Internal Secretions, Vol. II (ed. W. Young), Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, p. 1401Google Scholar
- Mahler, M. (1968). On Human Symbiosis and the Vicissitudes of Individuation, Vol. I, Infantile Psychosis, International Universities Press, New York, pp. 7–31Google Scholar
- Mahler, M., Pine, F. and Bergman, A. (1975). The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant, Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Meyer, E. (1964). Psychiatric aspects of plastic surgery, in Reconstructive Plastic Surgery, Vol. I (ed. J. Converse ), Saunders, Philadelphia, p. 365Google Scholar
- Meyer, J. (1980). Paraphilia, in Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 3rd edn (ed. H. Kaplan, A. Freedman and B. Sadock), Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, in pressGoogle Scholar
- Spitz, R. (1965). The First Year of Life, International Universities Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Winnicott, D. (1965). The Maturational Processes and the Facilitating Environment, International Universities Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar