The Tsarist Legacy

  • Robert Lewis
Part of the Studies in Soviet History and Society book series (SSHS)


In the twenty-five years before the outbreak of the First World War, there were substantial changes in the organisation of science in the industrially developed countries of western Europe and the United States, with a growing proportion of scientific research now taking place outside the universities. The latter, which earlier in the nineteenth century had taken over from the academies and learned societies as the main institutions in science, were now to see their primacy eroded by a new generation of organisations in the form of research institutes and laboratories.


Nineteenth Century Russian Industry Main Institution Imperial Academy Industrial Research Laboratory 
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© Robert Lewis 1979

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  • Robert Lewis

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