Making Approaches to Hardy

  • Dale Kramer

Abstract

Reading fiction and reading literary criticism are endeavours in common. In themselves, the two kinds of reading lead to quite dissimilar emotional and intellectual reactions, but the reactions support each other. Which of the two is the primary activity is obvious; but the importance of the secondary activity is attested by the evolution of novelists’ reputations — and in a firm sense their readability — in pace with developments in literary criticism. Of course not every change in literary criticism affects every author’s reputation in an even fashion. But understanding one novel in a fresh way often shakes our accustomed perceptions of other novels — especially those by the same author.

Keywords

Mercury Manifold Coherence Heroine Alan 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Edmund Wilson, ‘Dickens: The Two Scrooges’, The Wound and the Bow (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1941);Google Scholar
  2. Albert J. Guerard, Thomas Hardy: The Novels and Stories (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1949).Google Scholar
  3. An essay which may have helped prepare readers for Guerard’s book was Morton Dauwen Zabel’s ‘Hardy in Defense of his Art: The Aesthetic of Incongruity’ in Southern Review, vi (1940),125 – 49;Google Scholar
  4. Rev. and rpt. in Zabel’s Craft and Character in Modern Fiction (New York: Viking, 1957) PP. 70–96.Google Scholar
  5. 2.
    J. Hillis Miller, Thomas Hardy: Distance and Desire (London: Oxford University Press; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970);Google Scholar
  6. Perry Meisel, Thomas Hardy: The Return of the Repressed (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1972);Google Scholar
  7. Allan Brick, ‘Paradise and Consciousness in Hardy’s Tess of the d’Urbervilles’, NCF, xvii (1962), 115–34;Google Scholar
  8. Roy Morrell, Thomas Hardy: The Will and the Way (Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press; London: Oxford University Press, 1965);Google Scholar
  9. Bert Hornback, The Metaphor of Chance: Vision and Technique in the Works of Thomas Hardy (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1971);Google Scholar
  10. Jeannette King, Tragedy in the Victorian Novel: Theory and Practice in the Novels of George Eliot, Thomas Hardy and Henry James (Cambridge, England, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1978);Google Scholar
  11. Lois Deacon and Terry Coleman, Providence and Mr. Hardy (London: Hutchinson, 1966);Google Scholar
  12. J. O. Bailey, ‘Ancestral Voices in Jude the Obscure’, in The Classic British Novel, ed. Howard M. Harper, Jr., and Charles Edge (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1972) pp. 143–65;Google Scholar
  13. Robert Gittings, Young Thomas Hardy (1975) and The Older Hardy (1978) (London: Heinemann; Boston: Little, Brown);Google Scholar
  14. The Collected Letters of Thomas Hardy, Vol. I: 1840–1892, ed. Richard Little Purdy and Michael Millgate (Oxford: Clarendon, 1978);Google Scholar
  15. J. T. Laird, The Shaping of ‘Tess of the d’Urbervilles’ (Oxford: Clarendon, 1975);Google Scholar
  16. J. I. M. Stewart, Thomas Hardy: A Critical Biography (London: Longman, 1971);Google Scholar
  17. Michael Millgate, Thomas Hardy: His Career as a Novelist (London: The Bodley Head; New York: Random House, 1971);Google Scholar
  18. David DeLaura, ‘“The Ache of Modernism” in Hardy’s Later Novels’, ELH, xxxiv (1967), 380–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 4.
    Stanley E. Fish, ‘Literature in the Reader: Affective Stylistics’, in Self Consuming Artifacts: The Experience of Seventeenth-Century Literature (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1972) p. 406.Google Scholar
  20. 5.
    Claude Lévi-Strauss, ‘The Structural Study of Myth’ (1955)Google Scholar
  21. Structural Anthropology trans. Claire Jacobson and Brooke Grundfest Schoepf (1963; rpt. New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1967) pp. 202–28; Roland Barthes, ‘Myth Today’ (1957)Google Scholar
  22. in Mythologies, trans. Annette Lavers (London: Jonathan Cape, 1972) pp. 109–58; Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (1975), trans. Alan Sheridan (London: Allen Lane, 1977).Google Scholar
  23. 6.
    The Literary Notes of Thomas Hardy, Vol. I, ed. Lennart A. Björk (Göteborg, Sweden: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgcnsis, 1974).Google Scholar
  24. 7.
    The Personal Notebooks of Thomas Hardy, ed. Richard H. Taylor (London: Macmillan, 1979).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dale Kramer 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dale Kramer

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations