Advertisement

The Vulnerable Brain: Biological Factors in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression

  • H. M. van Praag

Abstract

Psychiatrists can lay no claim to a rich tradition in classification. They have long looked down on classification as a futile activity and a dangerous one to boot, one suggesting that a “labeling” of patients disregards that which is “essential” for them. This view is, of course, untenable. A scientific study should be preceded by a classification of the phenomena on which it focuses. Classification is the foundation of diagnosis and, without adequate diagnosis, treatment as well as research inevitably gives botched results.

Keywords

Psychiatric Diagnosis Homovanillic Acid Fusaric Acid Suicide Victim Endogenous Depression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Asberg, M., Bertilsson, L., Tuck, D., Cronholm, B., & Sjöqvist, F. Indoleamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid of depressed patients before and during treatment with nortriptyline. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 14, 277–286, 1972.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Asberg, M., Thorén, P., Träskman, L., Bertilsson, L., & Ringberger, V. Serotonin depression—a biochemical subgroup within the affective disorders? Science, 191, 478–480, 1976.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ashcroft, G. W., Crawford, T. B. B., Eccleston, D., Sharman, D. F., McDougall, E. J., Stanton, J. B., & Binns, J. K. 5-Hydroxyindole compounds in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with psychiatric or neurological diseases. Lancet, 2, 1049–1052, 1966.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beckmann, H., & Goodwin, F. K. Antidepressant response to tricyclics and urinary MHPG in unipolar patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 82, 17–21, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bertilsson, L., Asberg, M., & Thorén, P. Differential effect of chlorimipramine and nortriptyline on metabolites of serotonin and noradrenaline in the cerebrospinal fluid of depressed patients. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 7, 365–368, 1974.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blaschko, H., Burn, J. H., & Langemann, H. The formation of noradrenaline from dihydroxyphenylserine. British Journal of Pharmacology, 5, 431–437, 1950.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bourne, H. R., Bunney, W. E., Jr., Colburn, R. W., Davis, J. M., Davis, J. N., Shaw, D. M., & Coppen A. J. Noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5hydroxyindoleacetic acid in hindbrain of suicidal patients. Lancet, 2, 805–808, 1968.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bowers, M. B., Jr. Deficient transport mechanism for the removal of acid monoamine metabolites from cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Research, 15, 522–524, 1969.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bowers, M. B., Jr. Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) following probenecid in unipolar depressives treated with amitriptyline. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.), 23, 26–33, 1972.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brodie, H. K. H., Murphy, D. L., Goodwin, F. K., Sc Bunney, W. E., Jr. Catecholamines and mania: The effect of alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine on manic behavior and catecholamine metabolism. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapy, 12, 219–224, 1971.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brodie, H. K. H., Sack, R., & Siever, L. Clinical studies of 5-hydroxytryptophan in depression. In: Barchas, J. and Usdin, E. (Eds.), Serotonin and Behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1973, pp. 549–559.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Butcher, L. L., & Engel, J. Behavioral and biochemical effects of L-dopa after peripheral decarboxylase inhibition. Brain Research, 15, 233–242, 1969.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Buus Lassen, J., Squires, R. F., Christensen, J. A., & Molander, L. Neurochemical and pharmacological studies on a new 5-HT-uptake inhibitor, F6 4963, with potential antidepressant properties. Psychopharmacologia, 42, 21–26, 1975.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Carlsson, A., Corrodi, H., Fuxe, K., & Hökfelt, T. Effect of antidepressant drugs on the depletion of intraneuronal brain 5-hydroxytryptamine stores caused by 4-methyl-a-ethyl-meta-tyramine. European Journal of Pharmacology, 5, 357–366, 1969. (a)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carlsson, A., Corrodi, H., Fuxe, K., & Hökfelt, T. Effects of some antidepressant drugs on the depletion of intraneuronal brain catecholamine stores caused by 4, a-dimethyl-meta-tyramine. European Journal of Pharmacology, 5, 367–373, 1969. (b)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Carroll, B. J., Mowbray, R. M., & Davis, B. M. Sequential comparison of 1-tryptophan with E.C.T. in severe depression. Lancet, 1, 967–969, 1970.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Coppen, A., Shaw, D. M., & Farrell, J. P. Potentiation of the antidepressive effects of a monoamine oxidase inhibitor by tryptophan. Lancet, 1, 79–81, 1963.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Coppen, A., Shaw, D. M., Herzberg, B., & Maggs, R. Tryptophan in treatment of depression. Lancet, 2. 1178–1180, 1967.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Coppen, A., Brooksbank, B. W. L., & Peet, M. Tryptophan concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid of depressive patients. Lancet, 1, 1393, 1972.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Deleon-Jones, F., Maas, J. W., & Dekirmenjian, H. Urinary catecholamine metabolites during behavioral changes in a patient with manic-depressive cycles. Science, 179, 300–302, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Deleon-Jones, F., Maas, J. W., Dekirmenjian, H., & Sanchez, J. Diagnostic subgroups of affective disorders and their urinary excretion of catecholamine metabolites. American Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 1141–1148, 1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dunner, D. L. & Goodwin, F. K. Effect of 1-tryptophan on brain serotonin metabolism in depressed patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 26, 364–366, 1972.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Engelman, K., Lovenberg, W., & Sjoerdsma, A. Inhibition of serotonin synthesis by para-chlorophenylalanine in patients with the carcinoid syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine, 277, 1103–1108, 1967.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fawcett, J., Maas, J. W., & Dekirmenjian, H. Depression and MHPG excretion: Response to dextroamphetamine and tricyclic antidepressants. Archives of General Psychiatry, 26, 246–251, 1972.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Feighner, J. P., Robbins, E., Guze, S. B., Woodruff, R. A., Jr., Winokur, G., & Munoz, R. Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 26, 57–63, 1972.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fieve, R. R., Platman, S. R., & Fliess, J. L. A clinical trial of methysergide and lithium in mania. Psychopharmacologica, 15, 425–429, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fuller, R. W., Perry, K. W., & Molloy, B. B. Effect of an uptake inhibitor or serotonin metabolism in rat brain: Studies with 3- (p-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-Nmethyl-3-phenylpropylamine (Lilly 110140). Life Science, 15, 1161–1171, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fuller, R. W. & Molloy, B. B. Recent studies with 4-chloroamphetamine and some analogues. Advances in Biochemical Psychopharmacology, 19, 195–205, 1974.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Garelis, E., Young, S. N., Lal, S., & Sourkes, T. L. Monoamine metabolites in lumbar CSF: The question of their origin in relation to clinical studies. Brain Research, 79, 1–8, 1974.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gershon, S., Hekimian, L. J., Floyd, A., Jr., & Hollister, L. E. α-Methyl-p-tyrosine (AMT) in schizophrenia Psychopharmacologia, 11, 189–194, 1967.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Glassman, A. & Platman, S. R. Potentiation of a monoamine oxidase inhibitor by tryptophan. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 7, 83–88, 1969.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Goodwin, F. K., Brodie, H. K. H., Murphy, D. L., & Bunney, W. E., Jr. L-dopa, catecholamines and behavior: A clinical and biochemical study in depressed patients. Biological Psychiatry, 2, 341–366, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Goodwin, F. K., Post, R. M., Dunner, D. L., Sc Gordon, E. K. Cerebrospinal fluid amine metabolism in affective illness: The probenecid technique. American Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 73–79, 1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Goodwin, F. K. Discussion remark. In: Barchas, J. D., Hamburg, D. A. and Usdin, E. (Eds.), Neuroregulators and Hypotheses of Psychiatric Disorders. Oxford University Press (in press).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gordon, E. K., Olivier, J., Goodwin, F. K., Chase, T. N., & Post, R. M. Effect of probenecid on free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol (MHPG) and its sulphate in human cerebrospinal fluid. Neuropharmacology, 12, 391–396, 1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Greenspan, K., Schildkraut, J. J., Gordon, E. K., Bar, L., Aronoff, M. S., & Duren, J. Catecholamine metabolism in affective disorders: III. 3-methoxy-4hydroxyphenylglycol and other catecholamine metabolites in patients treated with lithium carbonate. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 7, 171–183, 1970.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hamberger, B. & Tuck, J. R. Effect of tricyclic antidepressants on the uptake of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine by rat brain slices incubated in buffer or human plasma. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 5, 229–235, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Herrington, R. N., Bruce, A., Johnstone, E. C., & Lader, M. H. Comparative trial of 1-tryptophan and E.C.T. in severe depressive illness. Lancet, 2, 731–734, 1974.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jimerson, D. C., Gordon, E. K., Post, R. M., & Goodwin, F. K. Central noradrenergic function in man: Vanillylmandelic acid in CSF. Brain Research, 99, 434–439, 1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Karoum, F., Wyatt, R., & Costa, E. Estimation of the contribution of peripheral and central noradrenergic neurons to urinary 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl glycol in the rat. Neuropharmacology, 13, 302–312, 1975.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Korf, J., Praag, H. M. van, & Sebens, J. B. Effect of intravenously administered probenecid in humans on the levels of 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid, homovanillic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl-glycol in cerebrospinal fluid. Biochemical Pharmacology, 20, 659–668, 1971.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Korf, J., Schutte, H. H., & Venema, K. A semi-automated fluorometric determination of 5-hydroxyindoles in the nanogram range. Analyt. Biochem., 53, 146–153, 1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Levitt, M., Spector, S., Sjoerdsma, A., Sc Udenfriend, S. Elucidation of the rate-limiting step in norepinephrine biosynthesis in the perfused guinea pig heart. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapy, 148, 1–8, 1965.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lidbrink, P., Jonsson, G., and Fuxe, K. The effect of imipramine-like drugs and antihistamine drugs on uptake mechanisms in the central noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine neurons. Neuropharmacology, 10, 521–536, 1971.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lloyd, K. J., Farley, I. J., Deck, J. H. N., & Hornykiewicz, O. Serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in discrete areas of the brainstem of suicide victims and control patients. Advances in Biochemical Psychopharmacology, 11, 387–397, 1974.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Maas, J. W., Fawcett, J. A., & Dekirmenjian, H. Catecholamine metabolism, depressive illness, and drug response. Archives of General Psychiatry, 19, 129–134, 1968.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Maas, J. W., Fawcett, J. A., Sc Dekirmenjian, H. Catecholamine metabolism, de-pressive illness, and drug response. Archives of General Psychiatry, 26, 252–262, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Maas, J. W. Biogenic amines and depression. Biochemical and pharmacological separation of two types of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 1357–1361, 1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Matussek, N., Benkert, O., Schneider, K., Otten, H., & Pohlmeier, H. Wirkung eines Decarboxylasehemmers (Ro 4-4602) in Kombination mit L-dopa aut gehemmte Depressionen. Arzneimittel-Fors., 20, 934–937, 1970.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mendels, J., Frazer, A., Fitzgerald, R. G., Ramsey, T. A., & Stokes, J. W. Biogenic amine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid of depressed and manic patients. Science, 175, 1380–1382, 1972.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mendels, J., Stinnet, J. L., Burns, D., & Frazer, A. Amine precursors and depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 22–30, 1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Moses, S. G. 8c Robins, E. Regional distribution of norepinephrine and dopamine in brains of depressive suicides and alcoholic suicides. Psychopharmacological Communications, 1, 327–337, 1975.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nagatsu, T., Hidaka, H., Kuzuya, H., & Takeya, K. Inhibition of dopamine-flhydroxylase by fusaric acid (5-butylpicolinic acid) in vitro and in vivo. Biochemical Pharmacology, 19, 35–44, 1970.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Papeschi, R. & McClure, D. J. Homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in cerebrospinal fluid of depressed patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 25, 354–358, 1971.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pare, C. M. B., Yeung, D. P. H., Price, K., Sc Stacey, R. S. 5-Hydroxytryptamine in brainstem, hypothalamus and caudate nucleus of controls and of patients committing suicide by coal-gas poisoning. Lancet, 2, 133–135, 1969.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Post, R. M., Gordon, E. K., Goodwin, F. K., & Bunney, W. E., Jr. Central norepinephrine metabolism in affective illness: MHPG in the cerebrospinal fluid. Science, 179, 1002–1003, 1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Praag, H. M. van. A critical investigation of the significance of monoamineoxidase inhibition as a therapeutic principle in the treatment of depression. Thesis, Utrecht, 1962.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Praag, H. M. van & Leijnse, B. Die Bedeutung der Psychopharmakologie für die klinische Psychiatrie. Systematik als notwendiger Ausgangspunkt. Nervenartzt, 34, 530–537, 1964.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Praag,, H. M. van & Leijnse, B. Neubewertung des Syndroms. Skizze einer funktionellen Pathologie. Psychiat. Neurol. Neurochir. (Amst.), 68, 50–66, 1965.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Praag, H. M. van, Uleman, A. M., Sc Spitz, J. C. The vital syndrome interview. A structured standard interview for the recognition and registration of the vital depressive symptom complex. Psychiat. Neurol. Neurochir. (Amst.), 68, 329–346, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Praag, H. M. van. The complementary aspects in the relation between biological and psychodynamic psychiatry. Psychiatric Clinic, 2, 307–318, 1969.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Praag, H. M. van & Korf, J. L-tryptophan in depression. Lancet, 2, 612, 1970.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Praag, H. M. van & Korf, J. Endogenous depressions with and without disturbances in the 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism: A biochemical classification? Psychopharmacologia, 19, 148–152, 1971. (a)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Praag, H. M. van & Korf, J. Retarded depressions and the dopamine metabolism. Psychopharmacologia, 19, 199–203, 1971. (b)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Praag, H. M. van, Korf, J., Dols, L. C. W., & Schut, T. A pilot study of the predictive value of the probenecid test in application of 5-hydroxytryptophan as an antidepressant. Psychopharmacologia, 25, 14–21, 1972.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Praag, H. M. van, Korf, J., & Schut, T. Cerebral monoamines and depression. An investigation with the probenecid technique. Archives of General Psychiatry, 28, 827–831, 1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Praag, H. M. van & Korf, J. 4-Chloramphetamines. Chance and trend in the development of new antidepressants. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 13, 3–14, 1973.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Praag, H. M. van. Towards a biochemical typology of depression? Pharmacopsychiatry, 7, 281–292, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Praag, H. M. van, Burg, W. van den, Bos, E. R. H., & Dols, L. C. W. 5-Hydroxytryptophan in combination with clomipramine in “therapy-resistant” depression. Psychopharmacologia, 38, 267–269, 1974.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Praag, H. M. van & Korf, J. Central monoamine deficiency in depressions: Causative or secondary phenomenon. Pharmakopsychiat., 8, 322–326, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Praag, H. M. van, Korf, J., Lakke, J. P. W. F., & Schut, T. Dopamine metabolism in depression, psychosis and Parkinson’s disease or: The problem of the specificity of biological variables in behavior disorders. Psychological Medicine, 5, 138–146, 1975.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Praag, H. M. van & Korf, J. 4-Chloramphetamines. In: Usdin, E. & Forrest, I. S. (Eds.), Psychotherapeutic Drugs. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1976.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Praag, H. M. van. Depression and Schizophrenia. A Contribution on Their Chemical Pathology. New York: Spectrum Publications, 1976.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Praag, H. M. van. About the impossible concept of schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry. In press.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Praag, H. M. van. Indoleamines in depression. In: Barchas, J. D., Hamburg, D. A. & Usdin, E. (Eds.), Neuroregulators and Hypotheses of Psychiatric Disorders. Oxford University Press, In press.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Randrup, A. & Munkvad, I. Biochemical, anatomical and psychological investigation of stereotyped behavior induced by amphetamines. In: Costa, E. & Garattini, S. (Eds.), Amphetamines and Related Compounds. New York: Raven Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Redmond, E. E., Jr., Maas, J. W., Kling, A., Graham, C. W., & Dekirmenjian, H. Social behavior of monkeys selectively depleted of monoamines. Science, 174, 428–430, 1971.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Roos, B-E. & Sjöstrom, R. 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid and homovanillic acid levels in the cerebrospinal fluid after probenecid application in patients with manic-depressive psychosis. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 1, 153–155, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ross, S. B. & Renyi, A. L. Inhibition of the uptake of tritiated 5-hydroxytryptamine in brain tissue. European Journal of Pharmacology, 7, 270–277, 1969.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Sack, R. L. & Goodwin, F. K. Inhibition of dopamine-ß-hydroxylase in manic patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 31, 649–654, 1974.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sano, I. L-5-hydroxytryptophan (1-5-HTP)-therapie bei endogener Depression. Munch. Med. Wschr., 144, 1713–1716, 1972.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Schildkraut, J. J. Norepinephrine metabolites as biochemical criteria for classifying depressive disorders and predicting responses to treatment: Preliminary findings. American Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 695–698, 1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Schildkraut, J. J., Keeler, B. A., Papousek, M., & Hartmann, E. MHPG excretion in depressive disorders: Relation to clinical subtypes and desynchronized sleep. Science, 181, 762–764, 1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Schildkraut, J. J. Biochemical criteria for classifying depressive disorders and predicting responses to pharmacotherapy: Preliminary findings from studies of norepinephrine metabolism. Pharmacopsychiatry, 7, 98–107, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Schildkraut, J. J. Depressions and biogenic amines. In: Hamburg, D. (Ed.), American Handbook of Psychiatry, V I. New York: Basic Books, 1975.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Schuckit, M., Robins, E., & Feighner, J. Tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Archives of General Psychiatry, 24, 509–514, 1971.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Schutte, H. H. Het metabolisme van serotonine in rattehersenen. Studies met radioactief gemerkt tryptofaan en toepassing van computersimulatie. Thesis, Groningen, 1976.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Shaw, D. M., Camps, F. E., & Eccleston, E. G. 5-Hydroxytryptamine in hindbrain of depressive suicides. British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 1407–1411, 1967.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Shaw, D. M., O’Keeffe, R., MacSweeney, D. A., Brooksbank, B. W. L., Noguera, R. & Coppen, A. 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol in depression. Psychological Medicine, 3, 333–336, 1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Shields, J. Genetic factors in neurosis. In: Praag, H. M. van (Ed.), Research in Neurosis. Amsterdam: Erven Bohn, B.V., 1976.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Shopsin, B., Wilk, S., Gershon, S., Davis, K., & Suhl, M. Cerebrosipnal fluid MHPG. An assessment of norepinephrine metabolism in affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 28, 230–233, 1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Shopsin, B., Wilk, S., Gershon, S., Roffman, M., & Goldstein, M. Collaborative psychopharmacologic studies exploring catecholamine metabolism in psychiatric disorders. In: Usdin, E. & Snyder, S. (Eds.), Frontiers in Catecholamine Research. New York: Pergamon Press, 1973, pp. 1173–1179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Shopsin, B., Gershon, S., Goldstein, M., Friedman, E., & Wilk, S. Use of synthesis inhibitors in defining a role for biogenic amines during imipramine treatment in depressed patients. Psychopharmacological Communications, 1, 239–249, 1975.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sjöström, R. & Roos, B-E. 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid and homovanillic acid in cerebrospinal fluid in manic-depressive psychosis. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 4, 170–176, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Takahashi, S., Kondo, H., & Kato, N. Effect of 1-5-hydroxytryptophan on brain monoamine metabolism and evaluation of its clinical effects in depressed patients. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 177–187.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Trimble, M., Chadwick, D., Reynolds, E. H., & Marsden, C. D. L-5-hydroxytryptophan and mood. Lancet, 1, 583, 1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Tuck, J. R. & Punell, G. Uptake of (3H) 5-hydroxytryptamine and (3H) noradrenaline by slices of rat brain incubated in plasma from patients treated with chlorimipramine, or amitriptyline. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 25, 573–574, 1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    WÂlinder, J., Skott, A., Nagy, A., Carlsson, A., & Roos, B-E. Potentiation of antidepressant action of clomipramine by tryptophan. Lancet, 1, 984, 1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Westerink, B. H. C. & Korf, J. Determination of nanogram amounts of homovanillic acid in the central nervous system with a rapid semi-automated fluorometric method. Biochemical Medicine, 12, 106–115, 1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wilk, S., Davis, K. L., Sc Thackes, S. B. Determination of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol (MHPG) in cerebrospinal fluid. Analytical Biochemistry, 39, 498–504, 1971.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wilk, S., Shopsin, B., Gershon, S., Sc Suhl, M. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of MHPG in affective disorders. Nature, 235, 440–441, 1972.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Wilk, S. Metabolism of biogenic amines in the central nervous system of man. Paper read at the Sixth International Congress of Pharmacology, Helsinski, 1975.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Brunner/Mazel, Inc. 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. M. van Praag

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations