Advertisement

The Limits of Standardisation

  • John K. Wing

Abstract

I shall be concerned, in this paper, with the development of techniques of making the processes of psychiatric diagnosis more reliable and communicable. Such techniques have recently had a good deal of success, but this has only been achieved by laying down specific limits, outside which they are not applicable. A consideration of these limits will not only allow a summary of progress to date but also provide an opportunity to discuss the points at which they might be extended. We shall thus be working from the known towards the unknown.

Keywords

Psychiatric Diagnosis Statistical Cluster Village Doctor Threshold Point Psychological Medicine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Arens, R. Make Mad the Guilty. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1969.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bahn, A. K., Gardner, E. A., Alltop, L., Knatterud, G. L., & Solomon, M. Com parative studies of rates of admission and prevalence for psychiatric facilities in four register areas. American Journal of Public Health, 56, 2033, 1966.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baker, J. R. Race. London: Oxford University Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brown, G. W., & Birley, J. L. T. Crisis and life changes and the onset of schizophrenia. Journal of Health and Human Behavior, 9, 203–214, 1968.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brown, G. W., Birley, J. L. T., & Wing, J. K. Influence of family life on the course of schizophrenic disorders: A replication. British Journal of Psychiatry, 121, 241–258, 1972.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brown, G. W., Bone, M., Dalison, B., & Wing, J. K. Schizophrenia and Social Care. London: Oxford University Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brown, G. W., Bhrolchain, M., & Harris, T. Social class and psychiatric disturbance among women in an urban population. Sociology, 9, 225–254, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brown, G. W., Sklair, F., Harris, T., & Birley, J. L. T. Life events and psychiatric disorders: Some methodological issues. Psychological Medicine, 3, 74–87, 1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carstairs, G. M. Cultural elements in the response to treatment. In Reuck, A. V. S., and Porter, R. (Eds.), Transcultural Psychiatry. London: Churchill, 1965.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Catterson, A., Bennett, D. H., & Freudenberg, R. K. A survey of long term schizophrenic patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 109, 750, 1963.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cooper, J. E., Kendell, R. E., Gurland, B. J., Sharpe, L., Copeland, J. R. M., & Simon, R. Psychiatric Diagnosis in New York and London. Maudsley Monograph No. 20. London: Oxford University Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Copeland, J., Kelleher, M. J., Gourlay, A. J., & Smith, A. M. R. Influence of psychiatric training, medical qualification, and paramedical training on the rating of abnormal behavior. Psychological Medicine, 5, 89–95, 1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dubos, R. Man Adapting. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ellenberger, H. F. The Discovery of the Unconscious. London: Allen Lane, 1970.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ennis, B. Prisoners of Psychiatry: Mental Patients, Psychiatrists and the Law. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Feighner, J. P., Robins, E., Guze, S. B., Woodruff, R. A., Winokur, G., & Munoz, R. Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 26, 57–63, 1972.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Foulds, G. A., & Bedford, A. Hierarchy of classes of personal illness. Psychological Medicine, 5, 181–192, 1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Goldberg, D. The Detection of Psychiatric Illness by Questionnaire. London: Oxford University Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Grinker, R., Werble, B., & Drye, R. C. The Borderline Syndrome. New York: Basic Books, 1966.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Haslam, J. Observations on Madness and Melancholy. London: Hayden, 1809.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hempel, C. G. Introduction to problems of taxonomy. In Zubin, J. (Ed.), Field Studies in the Mental Disorders. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1959.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hirsch, S. R., Sc Leff, J. P. Abnormality in Parents of Schizophrenics: A Review of the Literature and an Investigation of Communication Defects and Deviances. London: Oxford University Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Itard, J. M. G. (1801, 1807). The Wild Boy of Aveyron. English translation by G. and M. Humphrey, 1932. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1962.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kanner, L. Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nerv. Child, 2, 217, 1943.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Khodorovich, T. The Case of Leonid Plyushch. London: Hurst, 1976.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    McKeown, T., et al. Medical History and Medical Care. London: Oxford University Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Morosov, G. Letter in reply to Wing. British Medical Journal, 3, 40, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Murphy, H. B. M., & Raman, A. C. The chronicity of schizophrenia in indigenous tropical peoples: Results of a 12 year follow-up survey. British Journal of Psychiatry, 118, 489–497, 1971.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pledge, H. T. Science Since 1500. London: H.M.S.O., 1939.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rutter, M. Why are London children so disturbed? Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 66, 1221–1225, 1973.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sartorius, N., Jablensky, A., & Strömgren, E. Second Rochester International Conference on Schizophrenia. To be published, 1977.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Scharfetter„ C., Moerbt, H., & Wing, J. K. Diagnosis of functional psychoses: Comparison of clinical and computerized classifications. Arch. Psychiat. Nervenkr., 222, 61–67, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schneider, K. Clinical Psychopathology, 5th edition. Trans: Hamilton, M. W. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1959.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schulsinger, H. A ten-year follow-up of children of schizophrenic mothers. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 53, 371–386, 1976.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shepherd, M., Cooper, B., Brown, A. C., & Kalton, G. W. Psychiatric Illness in General Practice. London: Oxford University Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Srole, L., Langner, T. S., Michael, S. T., Opler, M. K., & Rennie, T. A. Mental Health in the Metropolis: The Midtown Manhattan Study. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Szasz, T. Schizophrenia: The sacred symbol of psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry, 129, 308–316, 1976.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Venables, P., & Wing, J. K. Level of arousal and the subclassification of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1, 114–119, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Vaughn, C. E., & Leff, J. P. The influence of family and social factors on the course of psychiatric illness. British Journal of Psychiatry, 129, 125–137, 1976.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Watt, N. F., Sc Lubensky, A. W. Childhood roots of schizophrenia. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 363–375, 1976.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    World Health Organisation. The International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia. Geneva: W.H.O., 1973.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wing, J. K. Impairments in schizophrenia: A rational basis for social treatment. In Wirt, R. D., Winokur, G., and Roff, M. (Eds.), Life History Research in Psychopathology, Vol. 4. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wing, J. K. (Ed.). Classification of psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric Annals, Vols. 6 and 7. 1976a.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wing, J. K. A technique for comparing psychiatric morbidity in inpatient and outpatient series with that found in general population samples. Psychological Medicine, 6, 665–671, 1976b.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wing, J. K. Reasoning about Madness. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1977a.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wing, J. K. Social influences on the course of schizophrenia. Second Rochester International Conference on Schizophrenia. (To be published). 1977b.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wing, J. K., Bennett, D. H., & Denham, J. The Industrial Rehabilitation of Long-Stay Schizophrenic Patients. Med. Res. Council memo. No. 42. London: H. M. S. 0., 1964.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wing, J. K., & Brown, G. W. Institutionalism and Schizophrenia. London: Cambridge University Press, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wing, J. K., Cooper, J. E., Sc Sartorius, N. The Description and Classification of Psychiatric Symptoms: An Instruction Manual for the PSE and CATEGO System. London: Cambridge University Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wing, J. K., & Hailey, A. M. (Eds.). Evaluating a Community Psychiatric Service: The Camberwell Register, 1964–1971. London: Oxford University Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wing, J. K., & Nixon, J. Discriminating symptoms in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry. 32, 853–859, 1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wing, J. K., Nixon, J., Von Cranach, M., & Strauss, A. Further developments of the PSE and CATEGO system. Accepted for publication: W.H.O., 1977.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wing, L., Wing, J. K., Hailey, A. M., Bahn, A. K., Smith, H. E., & Baldwin, J. A. The use of psychiatric services in three urban areas: An international case register study. Sociological Psychiatry, 2, 158–167, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wynne, L. C. Methodologic and conceptual issues in the study of schizophrenics and their families. In Rosenthal, D., and Kety, S. S. (Eds.), The Transmission of Schizophrenia. London and New York: Pergamon, 1968.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wynne, L. C. Family research on the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In Doncet, P., and Laurin, C. (Eds.), Problems of Psychosis. Excerpta Medica International Congress Series, No. 194, 1971.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Brunner/Mazel, Inc. 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • John K. Wing

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations