The ‘New’ Immigration and the Newest: Slavic Migrations from the Balkans to America and Industrial Europe since the Late Nineteenth Century

  • Michael Palairet
Chapter

Abstract

How alike or unlike were the ‘new’ immigration from southern and eastern Europe to north America before 1914 and the temporary-worker migrations from the Mediterranean lands to western Europe in the 1960s and early 1970s? Was the ‘new’ immigration itself of the Gastarbeiter type? And, if so, what lessons may be learned from this analogous historical experience? In this study of the emigration history of the Balkans, we compare some aspects of migrational experience before 1914 and during the 1960s. For a long time this comparison was ignored, because it was supposed that the 1960s movement only involved the employment of temporary workers who retained their main domicile in the countries of their origin, and, thus, that the movement was not an immigration at all. By contrast, the ‘new’ immigration to America resulted for the greater part in permanent settlement, though it might be conceded that it also had a transitory component. However, the ‘new’ immigration was also thought by contemporaries to be a purely transient movement, for much the same reasons, and in the last few years western Europe has come to realise that, whatever the original expectations of its guest workers, this newest immigration has planted huge and probably irreversible demographic facts in its midst.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    G. Prpic, The Croatian Immigrants in America (New York, 1971) pp. 89–90.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    O. M. JeremiŰ, O problemu emigracije i imigracje... (Belgrade, 1928 ) p. 14.Google Scholar
  3. 5.
    Jelenko PetroviŰ, Pecalbari narocito iz okoline Pirota (Belgrade, 1920) p. 7.Google Scholar
  4. 6.
    I. šizmiŰ, ‘O iseljavanju iz Hrvatske u razdoblju 1880–1914’, Istoriski zbornik, xxvn—xxvm (1974–5) 31.Google Scholar
  5. 8.
    Arrigo NikoliŰ, O nasim ise jivanju (Zadar, 1909) pp. 7–8.Google Scholar
  6. 9.
    N. BjelovučiiŰ, ‘Poluostrvo Rat (Peljesac)’, Naselja i poreklo stanovnistva x1 (Belgrade, 1922) 208;Google Scholar
  7. B. PuriŰ, Nasiise jenici (Belgrade, 1929) p. 73.Google Scholar
  8. 10.
    B. ColakovicŰ, Yugoslav Migrations to America (San Francisco, 1973) p. 42.Google Scholar
  9. 12.
    Duško H. Konstantinov, PeŰalbarstvo (Bitola, 1964) p. 90.Google Scholar
  10. 14.
    I. Gšsov, ‘Nasiti gradinarski druzestva’, Periodiiesko spisanie, no. 27 (1893) 339.Google Scholar
  11. 15.
    C. Ginčev, ‘Nekolko dumi ot istorijata na na‘seto gradinarstvo.. ’, Trud (T’rnovo) 1, nos. 18–19 (1887) 1192;Google Scholar
  12. N. Georgiev, B’lgari v juzna Amerika (Sofia, 1965) pp. 24–6 and 29–30.Google Scholar
  13. 16.
    Stjepan PavičiŰ, Seobe i rease ja u Lid (Zagreb, 1962) p. 274.Google Scholar
  14. 18.
    C. KostiŰ, Seljaci industriski radnici (Belgrade, 1955)Google Scholar
  15. 19.
    Petar MarkoviŰ, Migracje i promena agrarne strukture (Zagreb, 1974) P. 55.Google Scholar
  16. 22.
    G. A. Abbott, ‘The Bulgarians of Chicago’, Charities and the Commons no. 30 (9 Jan 1909) 654 and 657.Google Scholar
  17. 24.
    D. SimonoviŰ, Transfer jugoslovenskih sejaka u radnike (Belgrade, 1971) p. 107.Google Scholar
  18. 25.
    V. RožiŰ, ‘Prigorje. Narodni zivot i obicaji’, Zbornik za narodni zivot i obidaje juznih Slavena, XII (1907) 266–7.Google Scholar
  19. 26.
    I. Lj. Lupis, Oiseljivanju našega naroda i o Americi (Zadar, 1910) p. 4.Google Scholar
  20. 27.
    G. G. Govorchin, Americans from Yugoslavia (Gainesville, Fla, 1961) p. 22.Google Scholar
  21. 29.
    A. TresiČ-PaviciŰ, Preko Atlantika do Pacifika (Zagreb, 1907) pp. 85–7.Google Scholar
  22. 30.
    Ceda PaviŰ, Srbi i Srpske organizacije u Americi (Chicago, 1911) p. 9.Google Scholar
  23. 31.
    L. S. Kosier, Srbi Hrvati i Slovenci u Americi (Belgrade, 1926) p. 197.Google Scholar
  24. 33.
    M. M. SaviŰ, Yasa industrija zanati trgovina i poljoprivreda, x1 (1933) 442–3.Google Scholar
  25. 41.
    L. Trnjegorski, Jugoslovenske manjine u inostranstvu (Belgrade, 1938) p. 8.Google Scholar
  26. 42.
    I. BauČiŰ, ‘Radnici u Francuskoj u popisu stanovništva Jugoslavije 1971 godine’, in Iz Jugoslavije na rad u Francusku ed. M. FriganoviŰ (Zagreb, 1972) pp. 101–2.Google Scholar
  27. 43.
    M. Macura, Stanovniitvo i radna snaga kao dinioci privrednog razvoja Jugoslavije (Belgrade, 1958) pp. 75–6 and 319–22.Google Scholar
  28. 44.
    M. Barjaktarevič, ‘Lokalne migracije u pravcu Titova Uïica.. ’, Užidki zbornik, I (1972) 251.Google Scholar
  29. 46.
    N. šipovac, ‘ Migracije i zapošljavanje — problema na’seg vremena’, Glasnik privredne komore Bosne i Hercegovina, no. 4 (1966) p. 254.Google Scholar
  30. 48.
    K. Kozina, ‘Neid aspekti suvremene ekonomske emigracije iz SR Hrvatske’, Yale Teme, no. 6 (1964) p. 872.Google Scholar
  31. 54.
    I. BaučiŰ, Porijeklo i struktura radnika iz Jugoslavije u SR. Njemaikoj (Zagreb, 1970) p. 64.Google Scholar
  32. 56.
    E. G. Drettakis, Yugoslav Migration to and from West Germany, 1962–1973. An Econometrics Analysis (Zagreb, 1975).Google Scholar
  33. 59.
    I. BaučiŰ and Z. MaraviŰ, VraŰanje i zapos javanje vanjskih migranata iz SR Hrvatske (Zagreb, 1971) p. 96.Google Scholar
  34. 61.
    I. BaučiŰ, ‘Migration temporaire ou dŰfinitive: le dilemme des migrants et les politiques de migration’, Studi Emigrazione (Mar 1974) p. 123.Google Scholar
  35. 64.
    J. Bojčev, Preodoljavane na razlii jata mezdu grada i seloto v NRB (Sofia, 1964) pp. 76–84.Google Scholar
  36. 66.
    M. SabitoviŰ, ‘Nell aspekti spoljne migracije’, Pregled (1970) nos 7–8, p. 140.Google Scholar
  37. 69.
    S. CvetiŰ, Ise jenistvo kao druitvena pojava i njegov znaieaj za nasu zem ju (Belgrade, 1975) esPP. 31.Google Scholar
  38. 72.
    Z. TaniŰ, ‘Socioloiko obja’snjenje radnih emigracija’, Sociologija xv, no. 2 (1973) 167 and 177–8.Google Scholar
  39. 73.
    B. MeholjiŰ, Fenomen Hale savremene ekonomske emggracije (Belgrade, 1974) p. 124.Google Scholar
  40. 74.
    M. MorokvaišiŰ, ‘Des migrants “temporaires”: les yougoslaves’, Sociologie du travail, xiv, no. 3 (1972) 260.Google Scholar
  41. 78.
    R. Lohrmann, ‘European Migration - Recent Developments and Future Prospects’, International Migration, xrv, no. 3 (1976) 233.Google Scholar
  42. 82.
    Peter Roberts, The New Immigration (New York, 1922; repr. 1970) p. 17.Google Scholar
  43. 83.
    H. Sirovatka, Kako je u Americi i komu se isplati onamo putovati (Zagreb, 1907) pp. 18–19.Google Scholar
  44. 85.
    I. Râcz, ‘Parasztok elvândorlâsa a faluból’, in A parasztsdg Magyarorszlgon a kapitalizmus kordban 1848–1914, vol. u (Budapest, 1972) p. 475.Google Scholar
  45. 89.
    I. BaučiŰ, ‘Neka suvremena obleija i problemi vanjskih migracija jugoslavenskih radnika’, Sociologija. xv, no. 2 (1973) 212–13.Google Scholar
  46. 90.
    L. Stojović, ‘Kako se ide u pečalbu. Odlaže zdravi snaini mladići a vraećju se iznureni i bolesni starci’, Politika, xxxv, no. 10931 (1938) 13.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ailsa Maxwell, J. R. Ward, Alan Milward, Michael Palairet, George Hammersley, R. J. Morris, S. B. Saul, Wray Vamplew, Michael Cullen, Roger Davidson, Rosalind Mitchison, T. C. Smout, Stephanie Blackden, Ian Levitt 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Palairet

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations