Strategies for Development in Agriculture: The Nineteenth-century European Experience

  • Alan Milward


As the historical evidence on the development of economies accumulates, so do the models of development which once found most favour with historians appear as simplifications of history too excessive even for use in formal argument. The chief cause of discontent is the failure of such models to encompass the vital and complex role of the agricultural sector in the early stages of sustained development. The evidence from those European economies which experienced sustained development in the nineteenth century shows that the most typical path of development was that of a period, usually of three or four decades, of balanced responses and interaction between the primary sector and the rest of the economy, which was then followed by a period of sustained growth and development. Without this period of balanced response, sustained development often proved unobtainable. This pattern could be assimilated into the models of balanced growth only by reducing such models to a level so low as to be meaningless.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 2.
    H. Faber, Co-operation in Danish Agriculture (London, 1918) p. 139.Google Scholar
  2. 8.
    J. Kuuse, Interaction between Agriculture and Industry, Meddelanden frän Ekonomisk Historiska Institutionen vid Göteborgs Universitet, no. 34 (Göteborg, 1974) p. 22.Google Scholar
  3. 11.
    T. A. Mann, ‘On the Agriculture of the Netherlands’, in Georgical Essays, vol. y (York, 1809) p. 33.Google Scholar
  4. 12.
    S. Rowntree, Land and Labour (London, 1910).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ailsa Maxwell, J. R. Ward, Alan Milward, Michael Palairet, George Hammersley, R. J. Morris, S. B. Saul, Wray Vamplew, Michael Cullen, Roger Davidson, Rosalind Mitchison, T. C. Smout, Stephanie Blackden, Ian Levitt 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Milward

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations