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  1. 23.
    Midsummer’s Eve is 23 June. Hardy had a lifelong interest in folklore and ancient customs, deriving accounts from local recollections as well as his reading. These primitive forms of divination were once widespread in country districts and his work contains several examples, including Mrs Penny’s amusing experience in Under the Greenwood Tree (Pt I, ch. 8), on which Hardy was working at this time. See also the divination rites in The Woodlanders (ch.20); and, for a comprehensive account of midsummer customs, Ruth Firor, Folkways in Thomas Hardy (Philadelphia, 1931), especially pp. 42–3, 45–8, 51.Google Scholar
  2. 25.
    Beeny Cliff, on the north-eastern coast of Cornwall, rises 150–200 ft. above sea level and is almost one mile long, beginning a mile N.E. of Boscastle. Frequently visited by Hardy and Emma during their courtship, Beeny is recalled in Emma Hardy’s Some Recollections [1911] (London, 1961), pp.50–1, 57–8, which also includes Hardy’s own sketch of the scene, dated 22 Aug 1870 (p. 82). Beeny assumes a dramatic role as ‘the Cliff without a Name’ in A Pair of Blue Eyes (chs. 21–2), in composition at this time; this note contributes to its description in the novel. Beeny features in many poems, notably ‘Beeny Cliff and The Going’.Google Scholar
  3. 36.
    This note contains the genesis of the plot of ‘The Lady Icenway’, written and published 1890 as one of the stories in A Group of Noble Dames. Although the germ of several of these stories may be found in John Hutchins, History and Antiquities of the County of Dorset (Hardy’s library contained the 3rd edn., four vols, London, 1861–73), this note suggests that ‘The Lady Icenway’ was Hardy’s own invention.Google Scholar
  4. 44.
    G.H. Lewes, The Life of Goethe (London, 1873), p.310. Hardy’s commonplace book ‘Literary Notes, I’ (DCM) shows that he was at this time reading this biography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832), and he records several quotations from it on pp.9–10. Friedrich von Schlegel (1772–1829) was an eminent literary historian and proponent of ancient Hindu poetry. This criticism of the mythopoeic inadequacy of modern art occurs in his Gespräche über Poesie [‘Dialogue on Poetry’] (1800), p.274Google Scholar
  5. 63.
    The parish of Haselbury Plucknett, 19 miles N. W. of Dorchester, is in Somerset. The chancel had been restored in 1878 in a period when ‘the tables of the law’ were swept away from churches all over the country, partly as a result of the Oxford Movement’s impact on liturgy and partly of architects responsible in the name of Gothic for much wanton destruction of old and beautiful furniture. A new vicar presented a new organ to the church about this time and in May 1882 parishioners presented a new pulpit in memory of his predecessor (Somerset Record Office, Taunton, ref. 2/7/1 D/p/ha. pl. c/1664). The discarding of these church furnishings must have appealed to Hardy’s sense of irony. He made similar observations in Feb 1879 (Life, 126), later including these with more serious appeals against ‘abuse of ecclesiastical fabrics’ in ‘Memories of Church Restoration’, a speech for the Society for the Preservation of Ancient Buildings (Cornhill Magazine (Aug 1906), 184–96).Google Scholar
  6. 82.
    A recapitulation of Hardy’s success in dealing with publisher William Tinsley, who offered £30 (which Hardy regarded as ‘a trifle’) for the copyright of Under the Greenwood Tree on 22 Apr 1872, forwarding the sum on 20 July, and promising the further sum of £10 for the continental Tauchnitz edn. on 4 Oct. Meanwhile in July, because of the encouraging reviews of this novel, Tinsley had intimated his interest in having another story to run for twelve months in his magazine and encouraged Hardy to sign an agreement immediately. But Hardy, growing wary, bought and read Copinger on Copyright overnight and the next day insisted on and achieved better terms. The sum of £200 was detailed in a letter sent by Hardy on 27 July. The episode is recalled good-humouredly in the Life, 88–90, and a calendar of Hardy-Tinsley letters is included in Richard L. Purdy, Thomas Hardy: A Bibliographical Study (London, 1954), pp. 329–35.Google Scholar
  7. 118.
    The Letters of Henry James, selected and edited by Percy Lubbock, Vols. I and II (London: Macmillan, 1920). The leading review article (TLS, No.951 (8 Apr 1920), 217–18) remarks the malignity of some of James’s pronouncements, including the one on Hardy. This selection of extracts taken by Hardy from the book itself reflects his indignation on behalf of his good friends A.C. Swinburne (see n.88), George Meredith and Rudyard Kipling.Google Scholar

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© The Trustees of the Thomas Hardy Memorial Collection 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard H. Taylor

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