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Turkey: a Question of Alignment

  • Rodney Wilson

Abstract

Until the nineteenth century Ottoman Turkey was the dominant power in the Middle East, with an empire which covered 4·7 million square kilometres, including most of the area dealt with in this present study, with the notable exception of Iran. Southward from the capital, Istanbul, the empire extended through Syria and Mesopotamia (Iraq) to the shores of the Arabian peninsula in the east, while to the south it encompassed the entire Mediterranean littoral from Palestine to Egypt. The Empire included the oldest established centres of settled agriculture in the world, the Nile Valley and the Tigris-Euphrates Valley, where the original Garden of Eden was said to be located. To the north the Ottoman territories extended through the Balkans to southern Yugoslavia, and included Greece, Turkey’s ancient and modern rival.1

Keywords

Migrant Worker Immigrant Worker North Atlantic Treaty Organisation European Investment Turkish Economy 
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Notes

  1. 1.
    P. Wittek, The Rise of the Ottoman Empire, Royal Asiatic Society Monograph no. 23, (London, 1938) Chapters 1 and 3 especially.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Z. Y. Hershlag, Turkey: The Challenge of Growth (Leiden: Brill, 1968) p. 52.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    O. C. Sarc, ‘Economic Policy of the New Turkey’, Middle East Journal, vol. 2, no. 4, (October 1948) pp. 430–46.Google Scholar
  4. 7.
    Useful economic data on this period are provided by Max Weston Thornburg, Turkey: An Economic Appraisal (New York: Twentieth Century Fund, 1949). The trade data on p. 277–84 illustrate how, with imports falling over much of 1930s, import substitute industries had a major role to play.Google Scholar
  5. 8.
    Population census of Turkey, One Percent Sample Results (Ankara, 1975) p. 6.Google Scholar
  6. 9.
    State Planning Office, Gelir Davilimi, 1973 (Ankara, 1976), pp. 18 and 38.Google Scholar
  7. 10.
    See Oddvar Aresvik, The Agricultural Development of Turkey (New York: Praeger, 1975) Chapters 1 and 4 especially. Also Z. Y. Hershlag, op. cit., chapter 17, pp. 157–68 for a summary of agricultural developments.Google Scholar
  8. For statistical data on trends in agriculture at this time see Edwin J. Cohn, Turkish Economic, Social and Political Change (New York: Praeger, 1970), p. 18.Google Scholar
  9. 11.
    Ceval Karatas, Contemporary Economic Problems in Turkey, unpublished paper presented at British Society for Middle Eastern Studies Conference in Durham (July 1976) p. 3 ff.Google Scholar
  10. 12.
    For details of state assistance to industry see Mete Durdag, Some Problems of Development Financing: A Case Study of the Turkish First Five Year Plan 1963–1967 (Dordrecht, Holland: Reidel, 1973).Google Scholar
  11. Also Maxwell J. Fry, Finance and Development Planning in Turkey (Leiden: Brill, 1972).Google Scholar
  12. 14.
    EIB, Activities of the European Investment Bank in Turkey (Luxemburg, 1975).Google Scholar
  13. 15.
    John Bridge, The EEC and Turkey: an Analysis of the Association Agreement and its Impact on Turkish Economic Development, unpublished paper (Durham University, 1974).Google Scholar
  14. 17.
    Two useful case studies of the impact of migrant workers on the host countries of Western Europe and the resultant strains are Jonathan Power, Western Europ’s Migrant Workers, Minority Rights Group Report no. 28 (London 1976)Google Scholar
  15. and OECD, The Effect of the Employment of Foreign Workers, (Paris, 1974).Google Scholar
  16. 18.
    For useful statistical information up to 1972 see Besir Hamitogullari, La Planification du Développement Économique en Turquie, Faculty of Political Sciences Publication no. 266 (University of Ankara, 1968) pp. 308 and 310.Google Scholar
  17. A useful study of Turkish trade has been undertaken by Ann Kruegar, Foreign Trade and Economic Development (New York: Columbia University Press, 1974) Chapters 6 and 7 especially.Google Scholar
  18. 20.
    For an appraisal of total capital transfers into Turkey see Nelson Arditi, Les Investissements Étrangers en Turquie (Geneva, Droz, 1970).Google Scholar
  19. 21.
    Susan Paine, Exporting Workers; The Turkish Case, Department of Applied Economics Occasional Paper 41 (Cambridge University Press, 1974).Google Scholar
  20. 22.
    See Economist Intelligence Unit, Quarterly Economic Review of Turkey Annual Supplement (1976), pp. 22–3.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Rodney Wilson 1979

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  • Rodney Wilson

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