Turkey: a Question of Alignment

  • Rodney Wilson


Until the nineteenth century Ottoman Turkey was the dominant power in the Middle East, with an empire which covered 4·7 million square kilometres, including most of the area dealt with in this present study, with the notable exception of Iran. Southward from the capital, Istanbul, the empire extended through Syria and Mesopotamia (Iraq) to the shores of the Arabian peninsula in the east, while to the south it encompassed the entire Mediterranean littoral from Palestine to Egypt. The Empire included the oldest established centres of settled agriculture in the world, the Nile Valley and the Tigris-Euphrates Valley, where the original Garden of Eden was said to be located. To the north the Ottoman territories extended through the Balkans to southern Yugoslavia, and included Greece, Turkey’s ancient and modern rival.1


Migrant Worker Immigrant Worker North Atlantic Treaty Organisation European Investment Turkish Economy 
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  1. 1.
    P. Wittek, The Rise of the Ottoman Empire, Royal Asiatic Society Monograph no. 23, (London, 1938) Chapters 1 and 3 especially.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Z. Y. Hershlag, Turkey: The Challenge of Growth (Leiden: Brill, 1968) p. 52.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    O. C. Sarc, ‘Economic Policy of the New Turkey’, Middle East Journal, vol. 2, no. 4, (October 1948) pp. 430–46.Google Scholar
  4. 7.
    Useful economic data on this period are provided by Max Weston Thornburg, Turkey: An Economic Appraisal (New York: Twentieth Century Fund, 1949). The trade data on p. 277–84 illustrate how, with imports falling over much of 1930s, import substitute industries had a major role to play.Google Scholar
  5. 8.
    Population census of Turkey, One Percent Sample Results (Ankara, 1975) p. 6.Google Scholar
  6. 9.
    State Planning Office, Gelir Davilimi, 1973 (Ankara, 1976), pp. 18 and 38.Google Scholar
  7. 10.
    See Oddvar Aresvik, The Agricultural Development of Turkey (New York: Praeger, 1975) Chapters 1 and 4 especially. Also Z. Y. Hershlag, op. cit., chapter 17, pp. 157–68 for a summary of agricultural developments.Google Scholar
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  10. 12.
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  14. 17.
    Two useful case studies of the impact of migrant workers on the host countries of Western Europe and the resultant strains are Jonathan Power, Western Europ’s Migrant Workers, Minority Rights Group Report no. 28 (London 1976)Google Scholar
  15. and OECD, The Effect of the Employment of Foreign Workers, (Paris, 1974).Google Scholar
  16. 18.
    For useful statistical information up to 1972 see Besir Hamitogullari, La Planification du Développement Économique en Turquie, Faculty of Political Sciences Publication no. 266 (University of Ankara, 1968) pp. 308 and 310.Google Scholar
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  18. 20.
    For an appraisal of total capital transfers into Turkey see Nelson Arditi, Les Investissements Étrangers en Turquie (Geneva, Droz, 1970).Google Scholar
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  20. 22.
    See Economist Intelligence Unit, Quarterly Economic Review of Turkey Annual Supplement (1976), pp. 22–3.Google Scholar

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© Rodney Wilson 1979

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  • Rodney Wilson

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